Arsenic Might Lurk in Some Organic Foods: Study
THURSDAY Feb. 16, 2012 -- A sweetener used in many organic foods may be a hidden source of arsenic, new research suggests.
Researchers at Dartmouth College also note that the sweetener, organic brown rice syrup, is found in some infant formulas. Their report appears in the Feb. 16 issue of Environmental Health Perspectives.
Arsenic is a natural element that can contaminate groundwater. As the Dartmouth team explain, rice may be particularly prone to contamination because it pulls in arsenic. There are no federal limits currently set for arsenic levels in food.
Study author Dr. Brian Jackson, director of the Trace Element Analysis Core Facility at Dartmouth, set out to determine the concentrations of arsenic in commercial food products containing organic brown rice syrup, including infant formula, cereal/energy bars and high-energy foods used by athletes. Jackson and his colleagues bought commercial food products containing organic brown rice syrup and compared them with similar products that did not have rice syrup in them.
In all, 17 infant formulas, 29 cereal bars and three energy shots were all purchased from local stores in the Hanover, N.H., area.
Of the 17 infant milk formulas tested, two had listed organic brown rice syrup as the primary ingredient. These two formulas, one dairy-based and one soy-based, had arsenic levels that were more than 20 times greater than the other formulas, the researchers found.
One of the infant formulas had a total arsenic concentration that was six times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's safe drinking water limit of 10 ppb for total arsenic. The amount of inorganic arsenic, the most toxic form, averaged 8.6 parts per billion (ppb) for the dairy-based formula and 21.4 ppb for the soy formula, the study showed.
Cereal bars and high-energy foods using organic brown rice syrup also had higher arsenic concentrations than those without the syrup, the study showed.
"The baby formula findings are concerning," Jackson said. Infants and people who eat gluten-free diets, which are largely rice-based, are most at risk for consuming too much arsenic via food, he explained, while "the risk for the occasional cereal bar eater is low."
This isn't the first time arsenic levels in food have made the headlines.
Dr. Mehmet Oz, host of "The Dr. Oz Show," caused a public health stir in 2011when he reported that roughly one-third of apple juice samples he'd tested had arsenic levels exceeding 10 parts per billion (ppb), the limit for drinking water. At first, Oz was criticized by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, but his findings were later confirmed by a Consumer Reports study that showed many apple and grape juice samples are indeed tainted with arsenic.
What exactly are the health risks with arsenic?
"All we can fall back on is what we know about exposure through drinking water; risk of certain cancers or heart disease are slightly elevated in drinking water with a certain level of arsenic," Jackson said. "Moms should know that these rice-based formulas may contain arsenic and should limit exposure. Look at the ingredients when you purchase formula."
Connie Diekman, director of university nutrition at Washington University in St. Louis, said consumers shouldn't panic over the Dartmouth findings.
"As a registered dietitian, I would encourage consumers to not worry about this study, but to use it as a reminder that foods that grow in soil are growing with a wide variety of chemicals, both those found naturally in the soil and those that may be there from use of chemicals to foster growth," she said. "Whether the amount of any one chemical is enough to worry about is still a question that needs better research. Focusing on single foods as 'dangerous' or 'harmful' ignores how those foods impact the whole diet."
"Whether organic foods contain more arsenic, or other minerals, than conventional foods is hard to estimate, but this study does remind us that organic is not necessarily equal with healthier/better for you/ safe from harm," she added. "Ask a registered dietitian to help decipher new studies, and how those studies translate to their individual eating goals."
Learn more about arsenic in foods and drinks at the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Posted: February 2012