typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection

Generic Name: typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection (TYE foid vax EEN)
Brand Name: Typhim VI

What is typhoid vaccine?

Typhoid (also called "typhoid fever") is a serious disease caused by Salmonella typhi bacteria. Typhoid can be fatal if left untreated.

Typhoid can cause high fever, muscle aches, severe headache, weakness, confusion or agitation, loss of appetite, stomach pain, diarrhea or constipation, and rose-colored spots on the skin.

Untreated typhoid infection may lead to kidney failure, or intestinal bleeding caused by perforation (forming of a hole), which can be fatal. If the infection spreads to the gallbladder, the infected person may become a chronic carrier of the bacteria that causes typhoid. A carrier may have no symptoms but is capable of spreading the infection to others.

Typhoid is spread through contact with the stool (bowel movements) of a person infected with the bacteria. This usually occurs by eating food or drinking water that has become contaminated with feces from an infected person. Once in the digestive tract, typhoid infection can spread to the blood and other parts of the body.

Typhoid fever is most common in non-industrialized parts of the world, especially Asia, Africa, and Central or South America. People who travel to those regions are at risk of coming into contact with the disease.

The typhoid vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults and children who are at least 2 years old. Although not part of a routine immunization schedule in the U.S., typhoid vaccine is recommended for people who travel to areas where the disease is common.

This vaccine works by exposing you to a small amount of the bacteria, which causes your body to develop immunity to the disease.

Typhoid vaccine will not treat an active infection that has already developed in the body, and will not prevent any disease caused by bacteria other than Salmonella typhi.

Like any vaccine, the typhoid vaccine may not provide protection from disease in every person.

What is the most important information I should know about typhoid vaccine?

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to typhoid vaccine in the past.

Typhoid vaccine should not be used in a person who is a typhoid carrier.

Before you receive this vaccine, tell the doctor if you have a fever with any type of infection or illness, a bleeding or blood clotting disorder, a weak immune system caused by disease or by using certain medicines, or if you are taking a blood thinner or receiving chemotherapy or radiation.

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You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, the doctor may ask you to wait until you get better before you can receive the vaccine.

You should receive this vaccine at least 2 weeks before your scheduled travel or possible exposure to typhoid.

In addition to receiving typhoid vaccine, take precautions while traveling such as avoiding raw fruits or vegetables that cannot be peeled, drinks that contain ice, flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water, unbottled or unboiled water, or any food or beverage purchased from a street vendor.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving a typhoid vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.

What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before receiving typhoid vaccine?

You should not receive this vaccine if you have ever had an allergic reaction to typhoid vaccine in the past.

Typhoid vaccine should not be used in a person who is a typhoid carrier.

If you have any of these other conditions, your vaccine may need to be postponed or not given at all:

  • fever with any type of infection or illness;

  • a bleeding or blood clotting disorder (such as hemophilia);

  • a weak immune system caused by disease such as HIV/AIDS or cancer; or

  • a weak immune system caused by receiving certain medicines such as steroids, chemotherapy or radiation.

You can still receive a vaccine if you have a minor cold. In the case of a more severe illness with a fever or any type of infection, the doctor may ask you to wait until you get better before you can receive the vaccine.

Vaccines may be harmful to an unborn baby and generally should not be given to a pregnant woman. However, not vaccinating the mother could be more harmful to the baby if the mother becomes infected with a disease that this vaccine could prevent. Your doctor will decide whether you should receive this vaccine, especially if you have a high risk of infection with typhoid.

It is not known whether typhoid vaccine passes into breast milk, or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not receive this vaccine without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is typhoid vaccine given?

Typhoid vaccine is recommended for adults and children in the following situations:

  • people who travel to countries where typhoid fever is common;

  • people who will have long-term exposure to food or water that may be contaminated with typhoid;

  • people who live with someone who is a typhoid carrier; and

  • laboratory workers who may come into contact with Salmonella typhi in a work setting.

This vaccine is given as an injection (shot) into a muscle. You will receive this injection in a doctor's office or other clinic setting.

You should receive this vaccine at least 2 weeks before your scheduled travel or possible exposure to typhoid.

The typhoid vaccine is given as a single injection. A booster dose is then recommended every 2 years during possible exposure to typhoid. Your individual booster schedule may be different from these guidelines. Follow your doctor's instructions or the schedule recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).

Wash your hands often to help prevent typhoid when you are in an area where contamination is possible.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Be sure to receive a booster dose of this vaccine every 2 years during continued exposure to typhoid. If you do not receive the booster every 2 years, you may not be fully protected against the disease.

What happens if I overdose?

An overdose of this vaccine is unlikely to occur.

What should I avoid before or after getting typhoid vaccine?

In addition to receiving typhoid vaccine, take precautions while traveling to further prevent coming into contact with bacteria that cause typhoid fever:

  • Avoid eating leafy vegetables such as spinach or lettuce, which are harder to wash properly.

  • Avoid eating raw fruits or vegetables that cannot be peeled, or that have been peeled by another person.

  • Avoid drinks that contain ice, or frozen treats and flavored ices that may have been made with contaminated water.

  • Avoid eating foods you have not cooked or prepared yourself. Use clean surfaces and utensils when preparing food.

  • Drink only bottled water (carbonated is best) or water that has been boiled for at least 1 minute.

  • Avoid any food or beverage purchased from a street vendor.

Typhoid vaccine side effects

You should not receive a booster vaccine if you had a life-threatening allergic reaction after the first shot.

Keep track of any and all side effects you have after receiving this vaccine. When you receive a booster dose, you will need to tell the doctor if the previous shots caused any side effects.

Becoming infected with typhoid is much more dangerous to your health than receiving the vaccine to protect against it. Like any medicine, this vaccine can cause side effects, but the risk of serious side effects is extremely low.

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:

  • fever, swollen glands, rash or itching, body aches;

  • tremors, general ill feeling; or

  • feeling like you might pass out.

Less serious side effects include:

  • pain, tenderness, redness, swelling, or a hard lump where the shot was given;

  • low fever;

  • nausea, diarrhea, stomach pain; or

  • headache.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report vaccine side effects to the US Department of Health and Human Services at 1-800-822-7967.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

Typhoid vaccine (inactivated), injection dosing information

Usual Adult Dose for Typhoid Prophylaxis:

0.5 mL IM once in the deltoid.

The vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks before potential exposure to S typhi.

Booster: 0.5 mL IM every 2 years if there is continued exposure to Salmonella typhi.

Usual Pediatric Dose for Typhoid Prophylaxis:

>2 years:
0.5 mL IM once in the deltoid or the vastus lateralis. Do not inject into the gluteal area where there may be a nerve trunk.

The vaccine should be given at least 2 weeks before potential exposure to S typhi.

Booster: 0.5 mL IM every 2 years if there is continued exposure to Salmonella typhi.

What other drugs will affect typhoid vaccine?

Before receiving this vaccine, tell the doctor about all other vaccines you have recently received.

Also tell the doctor about all medications you use, especially a blood thinner such as warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven).

There may be other drugs that can interact with typhoid vaccine. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

  • Your doctor or pharmacist may have information about this vaccine written for health professionals that you may read. You may also find additional information from your local health department or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.01. Revision Date: 2012-08-15, 12:10:31 AM.

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