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mannitol

Pronunciation

Generic Name: mannitol (MAN it ol)
Brand Name: Osmitrol, Resectisol, Aridol

What is mannitol?

Mannitol is a diuretic.

Mannitol is used to force urine production in people with acute (sudden) kidney failure. Increased urine production helps prevent the kidneys from shutting down, and also speeds up elimination of certain toxic substances in the body.

Mannitol is also used to reduce swelling and pressure inside the eye or around the brain.

Mannitol may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide.

What is the most important information I should know about mannitol?

You should not be treated with this medication if you are allergic to mannitol, or if you have severe or long-term kidney disease, lung swelling or congestion, severe dehydration, bleeding in your brain not caused by surgery, or if your kidneys have already shut down and you are unable to urinate.

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To be sure mannitol is helping your condition and not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested often. This will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with mannitol. Your heart function will also need to be tested.

What should I discuss with my health care provider before receiving mannitol?

You should not be treated with this medication if you are allergic to mannitol, or have certain conditions. Be sure your doctor knows if you have:

  • severe or long-term kidney disease;

  • swelling or congestion in your lung;

  • bleeding in your brain that is not related to surgery;

  • severe dehydration; or

  • if your kidneys have already shut down and you are unable to urinate.

FDA pregnancy category C. This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Before receiving mannitol, tell your doctor if you are pregnant.

It is not known whether mannitol passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not receive this medication without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.

How is mannitol given?

Mannitol is given as an injection through a needle placed into a vein. You will receive this injection in a clinic or hospital setting. The medicine must be given slowly through an IV infusion, and you may receive the medication around the clock.

To be sure mannitol is helping your condition and not causing harmful effects, your blood will need to be tested often. This will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with mannitol. Your heart function will also need to be tested.

What happens if I miss a dose?

Since mannitol is given as needed by a healthcare professional, it is not likely that you will miss a dose.

What happens if I overdose?

Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have received too much of this medicine.

Since mannitol is given by a healthcare professional, it is not likely that you will receive an overdose.

What should I avoid while receiving mannitol?

Follow your doctor's instructions about any restrictions on food, beverages, or activity while you are being treated with mannitol.

Mannitol side effects

Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.

Tell your caregivers at once if you have any of the following symptoms. Some of these may be caused by your kidney condition and are not side effects of mannitol:

  • dry mouth, increased thirst, blurred vision, or seizure (convulsions);

  • swelling, pain, or skin changes where the medicine was injected;

  • chest pain, fast heart rate;

  • feeling like you might pass out;

  • feeling short of breath, even with mild exertion;

  • swelling, rapid weight gain; or

  • if you stop urinating.

Less serious side effects may include:

  • nausea, vomiting;

  • runny nose;

  • dizziness;

  • chills; or

  • mild skin rash.

This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

Mannitol Dosing Information

Usual Adult Dose for Oliguria:

Renal function test dose prior to initiation of treatment: 0.2 g/kg IV over 3 to 5 min resulting in a urine flow of at least 30 to 50 mL/hr. A second test dose may be administered if the urine flow does not increase. If no response is seen following the second test dose, the patient should be reevaluated.

Treatment: 300 to 400 mg/kg (21 to 28 g for a 70 kg patient) or up to 100 g of 15% to 20% solution IV once. Treatment should not be repeated in patients with persistent oliguria.

Prevention (for use during cardiovascular and other types of surgery): 50 to 100 g IV. usually a 5 , 10, or 20% solution is used depending on the fluid requirements of the patient.

Usual Adult Dose for Cerebral Edema:

0.25 to 2 g/kg as a 15 to 20% solution IV over at least 30 min administered not more frequently than every 6 to 8 hrs.

To yield a satisfactory reduction in intracranial pressure, the osmotic gradient between the blood and cerebrospinal fluid should remain approximately 20 mOsmol.

In small &/or debilitated patients 500 mg/kg may be sufficient.

What other drugs will affect mannitol?

There may be other drugs that can interact with mannitol. Tell your doctor about all your prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.

Where can I get more information?

  • Your doctor or pharmacist can provide more information about mannitol.
  • Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
  • Disclaimer: Every effort has been made to ensure that the information provided by Cerner Multum, Inc. ('Multum') is accurate, up-to-date, and complete, but no guarantee is made to that effect. Drug information contained herein may be time sensitive. Multum information has been compiled for use by healthcare practitioners and consumers in the United States and therefore Multum does not warrant that uses outside of the United States are appropriate, unless specifically indicated otherwise. Multum's drug information does not endorse drugs, diagnose patients or recommend therapy. Multum's drug information is an informational resource designed to assist licensed healthcare practitioners in caring for their patients and/or to serve consumers viewing this service as a supplement to, and not a substitute for, the expertise, skill, knowledge and judgment of healthcare practitioners. The absence of a warning for a given drug or drug combination in no way should be construed to indicate that the drug or drug combination is safe, effective or appropriate for any given patient. Multum does not assume any responsibility for any aspect of healthcare administered with the aid of information Multum provides. The information contained herein is not intended to cover all possible uses, directions, precautions, warnings, drug interactions, allergic reactions, or adverse effects. If you have questions about the drugs you are taking, check with your doctor, nurse or pharmacist.

Copyright 1996-2012 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 1.03. Revision Date: 2010-12-15, 5:01:39 PM.

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