Generic Name: acetazolamide (a SEET a ZOLE a mide)
Brand Name: Diamox, Diamox Sequels
What is acetazolamide?
Acetazolamide reduces the activity of a protein in your body called carbonic anhydrase. Blocking this protein can help reduce the build-up of certain fluids in the body.
Acetazolamide is used in people with certain types of glaucoma to reduce the amount of fluid in the eye, which decreases pressure inside the eye.
Acetazolamide is also used as a diuretic ("water pill") in people with congestive heart failure, to reduce the build-up of fluid in the body. This build-up is called edema.
Acetazolamide is also used to treat certain types of seizures, and to treat or prevent altitude sickness.
Acetazolamide may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
What is the most important information I should know about acetazolamide?
You should not use this medicine if you have cirrhosis, severe liver or kidney disease, an electrolyte imbalance, adrenal gland failure, or an allergy to acetazolamide or sulfa drugs.
What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking acetazolamide?
You should not use acetazolamide if you are allergic to it, or if you have:
severe liver disease, or cirrhosis;
severe kidney disease;
an electrolyte imbalance (such as acidosis or low levels of potassium or sodium in your blood);
adrenal gland failure; or
an allergy to sulfa drugs.
To make sure acetazolamide is safe for you, tell your doctor if you have:
severe breathing problems;
angle closure glaucoma; or
if you also take aspirin in high doses.
It is not known whether this medicine will harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.
Acetazolamide can pass into breast milk and may harm a nursing baby. You should not breast-feed while using this medicine.
Acetazolamide is not approved for use by anyone younger than 18 years old.
How should I take acetazolamide?
Follow all directions on your prescription label. Your doctor may occasionally change your dose to make sure you get the best results. Do not use this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended.
Your dose of this medicine will depend on the condition you are treating. If you take acetazolamide for congestive heart failure, your doctor may tell you to skip your medication for a day. Follow your doctor's dosing instructions very carefully.
Take this medicine with a full glass of water.
While using acetazolamide, you may need frequent blood tests.
Acetazolamide may be only part of a complete treatment program that may also include other medications. Follow your doctor's instructions very closely.
Store at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the bottle tightly closed when not in use.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. Skip the missed dose if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?
Seek emergency medical attention or call the Poison Help line at 1-800-222-1222.
What should I avoid while taking acetazolamide?
This medicine may impair your thinking or reactions. Be careful if you drive or do anything that requires you to be alert.
Avoid exposure to sunlight or tanning beds. Acetazolamide can make you sunburn more easily. Wear protective clothing and use sunscreen (SPF 30 or higher) when you are outdoors.
Acetazolamide side effects
Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficult breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat.
Call your doctor at once if you have:
blood in urine or stools;
a seizure (convulsions);
loss of movement in any part of your body;
a blood cell disorder--sudden weakness or ill feeling, fever, chills, sore throat, mouth sores, pale skin, feeling tired or short of breath, rapid heart rate, nosebleeds, bleeding gums;
liver problems--nausea, upper stomach pain or swelling, tired feeling, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
signs of metabolic acidosis--confusion, vomiting, lack of energy, irregular heartbeats;
signs of a kidney stone--pain in your side or lower back, blood in your urine, painful or difficult urination; or
severe skin reaction--fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.
Common side effects may include:
nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite, diarrhea;
numbness or tingling, especially in your arms and legs;
hearing problems, ringing in your ears;
increased urination; or
altered sense of taste.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
See also: Side effects (in more detail)
Acetazolamide dosing information
Usual Adult Dose for Edema:
250 to 375 mg oral or IV once a day.
When continued acetazolamide therapy for edema is desired, it is recommended that every second or third dose be skipped to allow the kidney to recover.
Usual Adult Dose for Acute Mountain Sickness:
Oral tablet: 125 to 250 mg orally every 6 to 12 hours.
SR capsule: 500 mg orally every 12 to 24 hours.
The maximum recommended dose is 1 gram/day.
For rapid ascent, higher doses are beneficial for preventing acute mountain sickness beginning 24 to 48 hours before ascent and continuing for 48 hours while at high altitude.
Usual Adult Dose for Glaucoma:
tablet or IV injection: 250 mg 1 to 4 times a day.
SR capsule: 500 mg once or twice a day.
250 to 500 mg IV, may repeat in 2 to 4 hours to a maximum of I gram/day.
Usual Adult Dose for Seizure Prophylaxis:
8 to 30 mg/kg/day in 1 to 4 divided doses. Do not exceed 1 gram per day.
If this patient is already taking other anticonvulsants, the recommended starting dosage is 250 mg once a day. If acetazolamide is used alone, most patients with good renal function respond to daily doses ranging from 375 to 1000 mg. The optimum dosage for this patient with renal dysfunction is not known, and will depend on this patient's clinical response and tolerance.
Acetazolamide is primarily used for the treatment of refractory epilepsy in combination with other drugs. Although it may be useful in partial, myoclonic, absence, and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures uncontrolled by other marketed agents, it has been inadequately studied by current standards for these conditions.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Glaucoma:
>= 1 year:
Oral: 8 to 30 mg/kg/day or 300 to 900 mg/m²/day divided every 8 hours.
IV: 20 to 40 mg/kg/day divided every 6 hours.
Maximum dose: 1 gram/day.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Edema:
>= 1 year:
Oral or IV: 5 mg/kg or 150 mg/m² once a day.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Epilepsy:
>= 1 year:
Oral: 8 to 30 mg/kg/day in 1 to 4 divided doses. Maximum dose is 1 gram/day.
Usual Pediatric Dose for Hydrocephalus:
Oral or IV: 20 to 100 mg/kg/day divided every 6 to 8 hours. Maximum dose is 2 grams/day.
What other drugs will affect acetazolamide?
Other drugs may interact with acetazolamide, including prescription and over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products. Tell each of your health care providers about all medicines you use now and any medicine you start or stop using.
More about acetazolamide
Related treatment guides
Where can I get more information?
- Your pharmacist can provide more information about acetazolamide.
- Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use this medication only for the indication prescribed.
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