Generic Name: Pindolol
Class: beta-Adrenergic Blocking Agents
VA Class: CV100
Chemical Name: 1-(Indol-4-yloxy)-3-(isopropylamino)-2-propanol
Molecular Formula: C14H20N2O2
CAS Number: 13523-86-9
Uses for Visken
β-Blockers generally not preferred for initial management of hypertension, but may be considered in patients who have a compelling indication (e.g., prior MI, ischemic heart disease, heart failure) for their use or as add-on therapy in those who do not respond adequately to the preferred drug classes (ACE inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, calcium-channel blockers, or thiazide diuretics).101 501 502 503 504 515 523 524 527
Black hypertensive patients generally tend to respond better to monotherapy with calcium-channel blockers or thiazide diuretics than to β-blockers. 85 89 90 500 501 504 However, diminished response to β-blockers is largely eliminated when administered concomitantly with a thiazide diuretic.500
Visken Dosage and Administration
Individualize dosage according to patient response and tolerance.1
If long-term therapy is discontinued, reduce dosage gradually over a period of about 1–2 weeks.1 (See Abrupt Withdrawal of Therapy under Cautions.)
BP Monitoring and Treatment Goals
When available, use evidence-based dosing information (i.e., dosages shown in randomized controlled trials to reduce complications of hypertension) to determine target dosages; target dosages usually can be achieved within 2–4 weeks but may take up to several months.501
Goal is to achieve and maintain optimal control of BP; individualize specific target BP based on consideration of multiple factors, including patient age and comorbidities, and currently available evidence from clinical studies.500 501
Initially, 5 mg twice daily, either alone or in combination with other antihypertensives.1 52 600 Increase dosage gradually by 10 mg daily at 3- to 4-week intervals as necessary up to 60 mg daily.1 The usual maintenance dosage range is 10–40 mg daily, given in 2 divided doses.2 11 15 500
If intolerable adverse effects occur, consider dosage reduction; if adverse effects worsen or fail to resolve, may need to discontinue and switch to another antihypertensive drug class.501
Maximum 60 mg daily.1
Dosage must be modified in response to the degree of hepatic impairment.1
Cautions for Visken
Bronchial asthma, heart block greater than first degree, cardiogenic shock, overt cardiac failure, or severe bradycardia.1
Avoid use in patients with decompensated CHF, may use cautiously in patients with well-compensated heart failure (e.g., those controlled with ACE inhibitors, cardiac glycosides, and/or diuretics).1
Adequate treatment (e.g., with a cardiac glycoside and/or diuretic) and close observation recommended if signs or symptoms of impending cardiac failure occur; if cardiac failure continues, discontinue therapy, gradually if possible.1
Abrupt Withdrawal of Therapy
Abrupt discontinuance of therapy is not recommended as it may exacerbate angina symptoms or precipitate MI in patients with CAD.1 Gradually decrease dosage over a period of about 1–2 weeks.1 Monitor patients carefully and advise to temporarily limit their physical activity.1 If exacerbation of angina occurs, reinstitute therapy promptly, and initiate appropriate measures for the management of unstable angina pectoris.1
Possible inhibition of bronchodilation produced by endogenous catecholamines.1
Generally should not be used in patients with bronchospastic disease, but may be used with caution in patients with nonallergic bronchospasm (e.g., chronic bronchitis, emphysema).1 (See Contraindications under Cautions.)
Possible risks associated with general anesthesia (e.g., severe hypotension, difficulty maintenaning heart beat) due to decreased ability of the heart to respond to reflex β-adrenergic stimuli.1 Use with caution in patients undergoing major surgery involving general anesthesia.1
Diabetes and Hypoglycemia
Use with caution in patients with diabetes mellitus receiving hypoglycemic drugs.1
Possible increased reactivity to repeated, accidental, diagnostic, or therapeutic challenges with a variety of allergens while taking β-blocking agents in patients with a history of anaphylactic reactions to a variety of allergens.1 Such patients may be unresponsive to usual doses of epinephrine.1
Safety and efficacy not established.1
Hepatic elimination; use with caution.1
Common Adverse Effects
Insomnia, dizziness, fatigue, nervousness, bizzare dreams or increased dreaming, weakness, paresthesia, edema, dyspnea, muscle pain, joint pain, chest pain, muscle cramps, nausea, abdominal discomfort, pruritus.1
Interactions for Visken
Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely1
Possible decreases in serum digoxin concentrations 1
Monitor for signs of hypotension and bradycardia (e.g., vertigo, syncope, postural hypotension)1
Hypotensive agents (hydralazine, hydrochlorothiazide)
Possible increased hypotensive effects1
Adjust dosage carefully1
Concomitant use is contraindicated73
Pharmacokinetic interaction unlikely1
Effect on heart rate is seen within 3 hours.2
Hypotensive effect is usually seen within 1 week, but maximum therapeutic response may not be observed until 2 weeks or longer.1
Acute hemodynamic effects persist for 24 hours after administration.2
Distributed into milk.1
Plasma Protein Binding
In geriatric patients, plasma half-life is 7–15 hours.1
In patients with hepatic cirrhosis, half-life is 2.5–30 hours.1
At higher than therapeutically obtained plasma concentrations, the drug has membrane-stabilizing activity or a quinidine-like effect.4
Decreases stress- and exercise-stimulated heart rate.1 2 4 5 Has a lesser effect on resting heart rate (usually decreasing resting heart rate only by about 4–8 bpm or not at all),1 2 4 5 15 22 slowing of conduction in the AV node,4 and cardiac output,2 4 13 22 than do β-adrenergic blocking agents that do not possess intrinsic sympathomimetic activity (ISA).1 2 4 5 15 22
The precise mechanism of hypotensive effect has not been determined;1 the drug does not consistently affect cardiac output or renin release, and other mechanisms (e.g., decreased peripheral resistance) probably contribute to its hypotensive effect.1 15 16
May increase airway resistance,1 2 4 depending on the patient’s pretreatment sympathetic tone; patients with high pretreatment tone show a decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), whereas those with low pretreatment tone may show little, if any, change in FEV1.17
Advice to Patients
Importance of taking pindolol exactly as prescribed.1
Importance of not interrupting or discontinuing therapy without consulting clinician.1
Importance of immediately informing clinician at the first sign or symptom of impending cardiac failure (e.g., weight gain, increased shortness of breath) or if any difficulty in breathing occurs.1
In patients with heart failure, importance of informing clinician of signs or symptoms of exacerbation (e.g., weight gain, difficulty in breathing).1
Importance of patients informing anesthesiologist or dentist that they are receiving pindolol therapy prior to undergoing major surgery.1
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Please refer to the ASHP Drug Shortages Resource Center for information on shortages of one or more of these preparations.
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2016, Selected Revisions February 13, 2015. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Zenith Goldline. Pindolol tablets prescribing information. Miami, FL; 1999 Jan.
2. Golightly LK. Pindolol: a review of its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, clinical uses and adverse effects. Pharmacotherapy. 1982; 2:134-47. [IDIS 153215] [PubMed 6133267]
3. Weber MA. Beta blockers in the initial therapy of hypertension. Drug Ther. 1980; 10(11):77-80.
4. Frishman WH. β-Adrenoceptor antagonists: new drugs and new indications. N Engl J Med. 1981; 305:500-5. [IDIS 136600] [PubMed 6114433]
5. Opie LH. Drugs and the heart. Lancet. 1980; 1:693-8. [IDIS 111317] [PubMed 6103100]
6. Talbert RL. Use of β-adrenergic blocking agents after myocardial infarction. Clin Pharm. 1983; 2:68-74. [IDIS 163582] [PubMed 6136362]
7. Weber MA, Drayer JIM. Renal effects of beta-adrenoceptor blockade. Kidney Int. 1980; 13:686-99.
8. Waal-Manning HJ. Hypertension: which beta-blocker? Drugs. 1976; 12:412-41.
9. Leonard RG, Talbert RL. Calcium-channel blocking agents. Clin Pharm. 1982; 1:17-33. [IDIS 142428] [PubMed 6764159]
10. Gonasun LM. Antihypertensive effects of pindolol. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:374-87. [IDIS 157068] [PubMed 7048877]
11. Frishman W, Jacob H, Eisenberg E et al. Clinical pharmacology of the new beta-adrenergic blocking drugs. Part 8. Self-poisoning with beta-adrenoceptor blocking agents: recognition and management. Am Heart J. 1979; 98:798-811. [IDIS 107182] [PubMed 40429]
12. Thadani U, Davidson C, Char B et al. Comparison of the immediate effects of five β-adrenoreceptor-blocking drugs with different ancillary properties in angina pectoris. N Engl J Med. 1979; 300:750-5. [PubMed 581782]
13. Taylor SH, Solke G, Lee PS. Intravenous β-blockade in coronary heart disease. Is cardioselectivity or intrinsic sympathomimetic activity hemodynamically useful? N Engl J Med. 1982; 306:631-5.
14. The United States pharmacopeia, 21st rev, and The national formulary, 16th ed. Rockville, MD: The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc; 1987(Suppl 5):2486.
15. Frishman WH. Pindolol: a new β-adrenoceptor antagonist with partial agonist activity. N Engl J Med. 1983; 308:940-4. [IDIS 169257] [PubMed 6339926]
16. Man in’t Veld AJ, Schalekamp ADH. Effects of 10 different β-adrenoreceptor antagonists on hemodynamics, plasma renin activity, and plasma norepinephrine in hypertension: the key role of peripheral vascular resistance changes in relation to partial agonist activity. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1983; 5:S30-S45.
17. Plotnick GD, Fisher ML, Hamilton JH et al. Intrinsic sympathetic activity of pindolol: evidence for interaction with pretreatment sympathetic tone. Am J Med. 1983; 74:625-9. [IDIS 169158] [PubMed 6340489]
18. Sandoz Pharmaceuticals: Personal communication; 1983 Aug 1.
19. Chau NP, Weiss YA, Safar ME et al. Pindolol availability in hypertensive patients with normal and impaired renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1977; 22:505-10. [PubMed 913016]
20. Ohnhaus EE, Heidemann H, Meier J et al. Metabolism of pindolol in patients with renal failure. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1982; 423-8.
21. Anon. Diuretic or beta-blocker as first-line treatment of mild hypertension. Lancet. 1982; 2:1316-7. [PubMed 6128605]
22. Kostis JB, Frishman W, Hosler MH et al. Treatment of angina pectoris with pindolol: the significance of intrinsic sympathomimetic activity of beta blockers. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:496-504. [IDIS 157087] [PubMed 7102536]
23. Rangno RE, Langlois S. Comparison of withdrawal phenomena after propranolol, metoprolol, and pindolol. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:473-8. [IDIS 157082] [PubMed 7102534]
24. Walden RJ, Hernandez J, Yu Y et al. Withdrawal of beta-blocking drugs. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:515-20. [IDIS 157090] [PubMed 6125098]
25. Gonasun LM, Langrall H. Adverse reactions to pindolol administration. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:482-6. [IDIS 157084] [PubMed 7048882]
26. Krupp P, Fanchamps A. Pindolol: experience gained in 10 years of safety monitoring. Am Heart J. 1982; 104:486-90. [IDIS 157085] [PubMed 7048883]
27. Gold DD. Propranolol-associated hyperglycemia: a case report. Hosp Formul. 1982; 17:92-101.
28. Koda-Kimble MA, Rotblatt MD. Diabetes mellitus. In: Katcher BS, Young LY, Koda-Kimble MA, eds. Applied therapeutics: the clinical use of drugs. San Francisco: Applied Therapeutics; 1983:1396-7.
29. Heel RC, Brogden RN, Speight TM et al. Atenolol: a review of its pharmacological properties and therapeutic efficacy in hypertension. Drugs. 1979; 17:425-60. [IDIS 104425] [PubMed 38096]
30. Opie LH. Drugs and the heart. Lancet. 1980; 1:693-8. [IDIS 111317] [PubMed 6103100]
31. The United States Pharmacopeial Convention, Inc. Pindolol tablets. Pharmacopeial Forum. 1984; 10:4411.
33. Weinstein RS. Recognition and management of poisoning with beta-adrenergic blocking agents. Ann Emerg Med. 1984; 13:1123-31. [PubMed 6150667]
34. Koller W, Orebaugh C, Lawson L et al. Pindolol-induced tremor. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1987; 10:449-52. [PubMed 3332615]
35. Hod H, Har-Zahav J, Kaplinsky N et al. Pindolol-induced tremor. Postgrad Med J. 1980; 56:346-7. [PubMed 7443595]
36. Teravainen H, Larsen A, Fogelholm R. comparison between the effects of pindolol and propranolol on essential tremor. Neurology. 1977; 27:439-42. [PubMed 558548]
39. Weber MA, Laragh JH. Hypertension: steps forward and steps backward: the Joint National Committee fifth report. Arch Intern Med. 1993; 153:149-52. [PubMed 8422205]
40. Collins R, Peto R, MacMahon S et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 2, short-term reductions in blood pressure: an overview of randomized drug trials in their epidemiological context. Lancet. 1990; 335:827-38. [IDIS 264836] [PubMed 1969567]
41. Alderman MH. Which antihypertensive drugs first—and why! JAMA. 1992; 267:2786-7. Editorial.
42. MacMahon S, Peto R, Cutler J et al. Blood pressure, stroke, and coronary heart disease. Part 1, prolonged differences in blood pressure: prospective observational studies corrected for the regression dilution bias. Lancet. 1990; 335:765-74. [PubMed 1969518]
43. SHEP Cooperative Research Group. Prevention of stroke by antihypertensive drug treatment in older persons with isolated systolic hypertension: final results of the Systolic Hypertension in the Elderly Program (SHEP). JAMA. 1991; 265:3255-64. [IDIS 282107] [PubMed 2046107]
44. Dahlof B, Lindholm LH, Hansson L et al. Morbidity and mortality in the Swedish Trial in Old Patients with Hypertension (STOP-hypertension). Lancet. 1991; 338:1281-5. [IDIS 289158] [PubMed 1682683]
45. MRC Working Party. Medical Research Council trial of treatment of hypertension in older adults: principal results. BMJ. 1992; 304:405-12. [IDIS 292411] [PubMed 1445513]
46. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. NHLBI panel reviews safety of calcium channel blockers. Rockville, MD; 1995 Aug 31. Press release.
47. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. New analysis regarding the safety of calcium-channel blockers: a statement for health professionals from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Rockville, MD; 1995 Sep 1.
48. Psaty BM, Heckbert SR, Koepsell TD et al. The risk of myocardial infarction associated with antihypertensive drug therapies. JAMA. 1995; 274:620-5. [IDIS 352203] [PubMed 7637142]
49. Yusuf S. Calcium antagonists in coronary artery disease and hypertension: time for reevaluation? Circulation. 1995; 92:1079-82. Editorial.
50. Ellison RH. Dear doctor letter regarding appropriate use of Posicor. Nutley, NJ: Roche Laboratories; 1997 Dec.
52. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 1997 Nov. (NIH publication No. 98-4080.)
53. Kaplan NM. Choice of initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA. 1996; 275:1577-80. [IDIS 365188] [PubMed 8622249]
54. Psaty BM, Smith NL, Siscovich DS et al. Health outcomes associated with antihypertensive therapies used as first-line agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 1997; 277:739-45. [IDIS 380501] [PubMed 9042847]
55. Whelton PK, Appel LJ, Espeland MA et al. for the TONE Collaborative Research Group. Sodium reduction and weight loss in the treatment of hypertension in older persons: a randomized controlled trial of nonpharmacologic interventions in the elderly (TONE). JAMA. 1998; 279:839-46. [PubMed 9515998]
57. Genuth P. United Kingdom prospective diabetes study results are in. J Fam Pract. 1998; 47:(Suppl 5):S27.
59. Watkins PJ. UKPDS: a message of hope and a need for change. Diabet Med. 1998; 15:895-6. [PubMed 9827842]
60. Bretzel RG, Voit K, Schatz H et al. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS): implications for the pharmacotherapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 1998; 106:369-72. [PubMed 9831300]
61. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Tight blood presure control and risk of microvascular and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 38. BMJ. 1998; 317:703-13. [IDIS 412064] [PubMed 9732337]
62. American Diabetes Association. The United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) for type 2 diabetes: what you need to know about the results of a long-term study. Washington, DC; 1998 Sep 15 from American Diabetes Association web site.
63. UK Prospective Diabetes Study Group. Efficacy of atenolol and captopril in reducing risk of macrovascular complications in type 2 diabetes: UKPDS 39. BMJ. 1998; 317:713-20. [IDIS 412065] [PubMed 9732338]
64. Davis TME. United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study: the end of the beginning? Med J Aust. 1998; 169:511-2.
66. Anon. Consensus recommendations for the management of chronic heart failure. On behalf of the membership of the advisory council to improve outcomes nationwide in heart failure. Part II. Management of heart failure: apporaches to the prevention of heart failure. Am J Cardiol. 1999; 83:9-38A.
67. Roche. Posicor (mibefradil hydrochloride) tablets prescribing information. Nutley, NJ; 1997 Dec.
68. Lim PO, MacDonald TM. Antianginal and β-adrenergic blocking drugs. In: Dukes MNG, ed. Meyler’s side effects of drugs. 13th ed. New York: Elsevier/North Holland Inc; 1996:488-535.
69. Gress TW, Nieto FJ, Shahar E et al. Hypertension and antihypertensive therapy as risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342:905-12. [IDIS 442916] [PubMed 10738048]
70. Sowers JR, Bakris GL. Antihypertensive therapy and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342:969-70. [IDIS 442921] [PubMed 10738057]
71. Izzo JL, Levy D, Black HR. Importance of systolic blood pressure in older Americans. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1021-4. [PubMed 10818056]
72. Frohlich ED. Recognition of systolic hypertension for hypertension. Hypertension. 2000; 35:1019-20. [PubMed 10818055]
73. Novartis. Mellaril, Mellaril-S (thioridazine) tablets, oral solution, and oral suspension prescribing information. East Hanover, NJ; 2000 Jun.
74. Bakris GL, Williams M, Dworkin L et al. Preserving renal function in adults with hypertension and diabetes: a consensus approach. Am J Kidney Dis. 2000; 36:646-61. [IDIS 452007] [PubMed 10977801]
75. Hansson L, Zanchetti A, Carruthers SG et al. Effects of intensive blood-pressure lowering and low-dose aspirin in patients with hypertension: principal results of the Hypertension Optimal Treatment (HOT) randomised trial. Lancet. 1998; 351:1755-62. [IDIS 409003] [PubMed 9635947]
78. ACC/AHA/ACP-ASIM guidelines for the management of patients with chronic stable angina: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients with Chronic Stable Angina). J Am Coll Cardiol. 1999; 33:2092-7.
79. Williams CL, Hayman LL, Daniels SR et al. Cardiovascular health in childhood: a statement for health professional from the Committee on Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, and Obesity in the Young (AHOY) of the Council on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, American Heart Association. Circulation. 2002; 106:143-60. [PubMed 12093785]
80. Braunwald E, Antman EM, Beasley JW et al. ACC/AHA guideline update for the management of patients with unstable angina and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on the Management of Patients with Unstable Angina). 2002. Available from website. Accessed Sep. 10, 2002.
81. Ryan TJ, Antman EM, Brooks NH et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction: 1999 update: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee on Managment of Acute Myocardial Infarction). From website.
82. Appel LJ. The verdict from ALLHAT—thiazide diuretics are the preferred initial therapy for hypertension. JAMA. 2002; 288:3039-60. [IDIS 490723] [PubMed 12479770]
83. The ALLHAT Officers and Coordinators for the ALLHAT Collaborative Research Group. Major outcomes in high-risk hypertensive patients randomized to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or calcium channel blocker vs diuretic: the Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial (ALLHAT). JAMA. 2002; 288:2981-97. [IDIS 490721] [PubMed 12479763]
85. Douglas JG, Bakris GL, Epstein M et al. Management of high blood pressure in African Americans: Consensus statement of the Hypertension in African Americans Working Group of the International Society on Hypertension in Blacks. Arch Intern Med. 2003; 163:525-41.
87. The Guidelines Subcommitee of the WHO/ISH Mild Hypertension Liaison Committee. 1999 guidelines for the management of hypertension. J Hypertension. 1999; 17:392-403.
89. Wright JT, Dunn JK, Cutler JA et al. Outcomes in hypertensive black and nonblack patients treated with chlorthalidone, amlodipine, and lisinopril. JAMA. 2005; 293:1595-607. [IDIS 531054] [PubMed 15811979]
90. Neaton JD, Kuller LH. Diuretics are color blind. JAMA. 2005; 293:1663-6. [IDIS 531056] [PubMed 15811986]
91. Thadani U. Beta blockers in hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 1983; 52:10-5D.
92. Conolly ME, Kersting F, Dollery CT. The clinical pharmacology of beta-adrenoceptor-blocking drugs. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 1976; 19:203-34. [PubMed 10600]
93. Shand DG. State-of-the-art: comparative pharmacology of the β-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. Drugs. 1983; 25(Suppl 2):92-9.
94. Breckenridge A. Which beta blocker? Br Med J. 1983; 286:1085-8. (IDIS 169422)
95. Anon. Choice of a beta-blocker. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1986; 28:20-2. [PubMed 2869400]
96. Wallin JD, Shah SV. β-Adrenergic blocking agents in the treatment of hypertension: choices based on pharmacological properties and patient characteristics. Arch Intern Med. 1987; 147:654-9. [IDIS 227948] [PubMed 2881524]
97. McDevitt DG. β-Adrenoceptor blocking drugs and partial agonist activity: is it clinically relevant? Drugs. 1983; 25:331-8.
98. McDevitt DG. Clinical significance of cardioselectivity: state-of-the-art. Drugs. 1983; 25(Suppl 2):219-26.
99. Lewis RV, McDevitt DG. Adverse reactions and interactions with β-adrenoceptor blocking drugs. Med Toxicol. 1986; 1:343-61. [IDIS 239050] [PubMed 2878346]
100. Frishman WH. Clinical differences between beta-adrenergic blocking agents: implications for therapeutic substitution. Am Heart J. 1987; 113:1190-8. [IDIS 229873] [PubMed 2883867]
101. Dahlof B, Devereux RB, Kjeldsen SE, et al. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension Study (LIFE). Lancet. 2002;359:995-1003. [PubMed 11937178]
500. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute National High Blood Pressure Education Program. The seventh report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7 ). Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health; 2004 Aug. (NIH publication No. 04-5230.)
501. James PA, Oparil S, Carter BL et al. 2014 evidence-based guideline for the management of high blood pressure in adults: report from the panel members appointed to the Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8). JAMA. 2014; 311:507-20. [PubMed 24352797]
502. Mancia G, Fagard R, Narkiewicz K et al. 2013 ESH/ESC Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension: the Task Force for the management of arterial hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). J Hypertens. 2013; 31:1281-357. [PubMed 23817082]
503. Go AS, Bauman MA, Coleman King SM et al. An effective approach to high blood pressure control: a science advisory from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Hypertension. 2014; 63:878-85. [PubMed 24243703]
504. Weber MA, Schiffrin EL, White WB et al. Clinical practice guidelines for the management of hypertension in the community: a statement by the American Society of Hypertension and the International Society of Hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2014; 16:14-26. [PubMed 24341872]
515. Thomas G, Shishehbor M, Brill D et al. New hypertension guidelines: one size fits most?. Cleve Clin J Med. 2014; 81:178-88. [PubMed 24591473]
523. Fihn SD, Gardin JM, Abrams J et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA/ACP/AATS/PCNA/SCAI/STS guideline for the diagnosis and management of patients with stable ischemic heart disease: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines, and the American College of Physicians, American Association for Thoracic Surgery, Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, and Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Circulation. 2012; 126:e354-471. [PubMed 23166211]
524. WRITING COMMITTEE MEMBERS, Yancy CW, Jessup M et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of heart failure: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on practice guidelines. Circulation. 2013; 128:e240-327. [PubMed 23741058]
527. O'Gara PT, Kushner FG, Ascheim DD et al. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2013; 127:e362-425. [PubMed 23247304]
600. Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc. Pindolol tablets prescribing information. Morgantown, WV; 2010 Aug.