VA Class: AM900
Chemical Name: ± - 9 - Fluoro - 2,3 - dihydro - 3 - methyl - 10 - (4 - methyl - 1 - piperazinyl) - 7 - oxo - 7H - pyrido[1,2,3 - de] - 1,4 - benzoxaz ine-6-carboxylicacid
CAS Number: 82419-36-1
Systemic fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all age groups.1 675 676 680 Risk of fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older adults (usually those >60 years of age), individuals receiving concomitant corticosteroids, and kidney, heart, or lung transplant recipients.1 675 676 680 (See Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture under Cautions.)
Uses for Ofloxacin
Bone and Joint Infections
Treatment of mild to moderate bone and joint infections† (including osteomyelitis) caused by susceptible Escherichia coli,233 252 262 263 491 Enterobacter,233 252 262 263 Klebsiella oxytoca,491 K. pneumoniae,233 252 263 Proteus mirabilis,252 262 Pseudomonas aeruginosa,233 252 262 263 414 491 502 Serratia,233 252 491 Staphylococcus aureus,233 252 262 263 413 414 491 502 or S. epidermidis.233 252 262 263 414 491 Consider that fluoroquinolone-resistant staphylococci have been reported with increasing frequency; probably should not be used alone in treatment of bone and joint infections known or suspected of being caused by staphylococci.502
Treatment of infectious diarrhea† caused by susceptible enterotoxigenic E. coli or Shigella.330 420 429 Active in vitro against most pathogens associated with infectious diarrhea (including E. coli, Shigella, Salmonella, Aeromonas, Vibrio, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter); may be a drug of choice for empiric treatment.242 243 321 327 426 429 539 Consider increasing emergence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter secondary to widespread use of the drugs; use judiciously for treatment or prevention of enteropathogenic diarrhea.524 539 541
Treatment of shigellosis† caused by susceptible Shigella when anti-infectives indicated.461 Anti-infectives generally indicated in addition to fluid and electrolyte replacement for treatment of patients with severe shigellosis, dysentery, or underlying immunosuppression.292 412 Empiric treatment regimen can be used initially, but in vitro susceptibility testing indicated since resistance is common.292 Fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) are drugs of choice when susceptibility of isolate unknown or ampicillin- or co-trimoxazole-resistant strains involved.292 412 461 566
Treatment of travelers’ diarrhea†.305 525 557 590 612 If caused by bacteria, may be self-limited and resolve within 3–5 days without anti-infective treatment;525 588 589 590 if diarrhea is moderate or severe, persists for >3 days, or is associated with fever or bloody stools, short-term (1–3 days) anti-infective treatment is recommended.305 525 588 589 590 Fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin) usually drugs of choice when treatment, including self-treatment, indicated.305 525 588 590 612 Azithromycin is a treatment alternative if fluoroquinolones should not be used (e.g., children, pregnant women) and a drug of choice for travelers in areas with a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter (e.g., South and Southeast Asia) or when there is no response after 48 hours of fluoroquinolone treatment.305 525 Rifaximin is another alternative for treatment of travelers' diarrhea caused by noninvasive E. coli.305 525
Prevention of travelers’ diarrhea† in individuals traveling for relatively short periods to areas where enterotoxigenic E. coli and other causative bacterial pathogens (e.g., Shigella) are known to be susceptible to the drug.305 525 CDC and others do not recommend anti-infective prophylaxis in most individuals traveling to areas of risk;305 524 525 527 529 the principal preventive measures are prudent dietary practices.525 If anti-infective prophylaxis is used (e.g., in immunocompromised individuals such as those with HIV infection), a fluoroquinolone (ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin) is recommended for nonpregnant adults;305 525 azithromycin and rifaximin are alternatives.305 Weigh use of anti-infective prophylaxis against use of prompt, early self-treatment with anti-infectives, a strategy that can limit duration of illness to 6–24 hours in most cases.525
Treatment of >Helicobacter pylori infection and duodenal ulcer disease† in conjunction with other agents.406 643 Additional study is needed and some clinicians state that efficacy of dual or triple therapy that includes a fluoroquinolone anti-infective currently is unproven for H. pylori infections.539 570
Respiratory Tract Infections
Treatment of acute bacterial exacerbations of chronic bronchitis caused by susceptible Haemophilus influenzae1 230 232 236 239 244 251 253 259 265 272 274 413 414 420 433 or Streptococcus pneumoniae.1 230 232 239 244 251 253 259 265 272 274 414 420
Treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by susceptible H. influenzae1 230 232 236 251 253 259 272 413 414 420 or S. pneumoniae.1 230 232 251 253 259 272 414 420 IDSA and ATS state that other fluoroquinolones with enhanced activity against S. pneumoniae (gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) are drugs of choice for empiric treatment of CAP in outpatients at risk for infections caused by drug-resistant S. pneumoniae (DRSP) and also are drugs of choice for empiric treatment of CAP in inpatients.639
Has been used for treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by susceptible Moraxella catarrhalis†,236 239 244 251 272 433 S. aureus†,232 236 244 265 414 420 viridans streptococci†,484 Enterobacteriaceae†,230 232 251 259 265 414 420 484 or Ps. aeruginosa†.230 232 239 259 265 268 414 420
Has been used for treatment of acute exacerbations of bronchopulmonary Ps. aeruginosa infections in adults with cystic fibrosis†.126 170 177 264 413 420 464 As with other anti-infectives, Ps. aeruginosa may be cleared temporarily from the sputum, but a bacteriologic cure rarely is obtained and should not be expected.177 249 264 413
Skin and Skin Structure Infections
Treatment of mild to moderate uncomplicated skin and skin structure infections (e.g., cellulitis, subcutaneous abscesses, surgical wound infections, furunculosis, folliculitis) caused by susceptible S. aureus,1 255 420 462 S. epidermidis†,420 S. pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci),1 or P. mirabilis;1 also has been used for treatment of skin and skin structure infections caused by susceptible E. coli†255 or Ps. aeruginosa†.255
The increasing emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in staphylococci limits usefulness of the drug for infections caused by these gram-positive bacteria.40 133 134 413 426 506 519 520 521 522 539 541
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Prostatitis
Treatment of uncomplicated cystitis caused by susceptible Citrobacter diversus,1 288 425 E. aerogenes,1 288 E. coli,1 277 278 280 282 288 423 478 490 K. pneumoniae,1 280 288 490 P. mirabilis,1 277 278 280 288 423 490 or Ps. aeruginosa;1 280 288 478 also has been used for cystitis caused by susceptible C. freundii†,490 E. cloacae†,490 or Morganella morganii†.280
Has been used treatment of uncomplicated UTIs caused by susceptible gram-positive bacteria, including S. aureus†,282 288 423 490 S. epidermidis†,277 278 423 490 S. saprophyticus†,277 282 423 478 Enterococcus faecalis†,277 278 288 490 viridans streptococci†,490 or Streptococcus agalactiae† (group B streptococci).278 Because of concerns about emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in gram-positive bacteria (e.g., staphylococci), such use should be selective.40 133 134 406 506 519 520 521 522 539 541
Treatment of complicated UTIs caused by susceptible C. diversus,1 285 E. coli,1 279 281 285 K. pneumoniae,1 285 P. mirabilis,1 285 or Ps. aeruginosa;1 279 281 285 also has been used for complicated UTIs caused by susceptible C. freundii†,285 Enterobacter†,285 M. morganii†,285 or P. rettgeri†.285
Usually reserved for treatment of complicated UTIs, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria.237 241 243 275 282 417 426 Generally considered alternative for treatment of uncomplicated UTIs (e.g., acute cystitis) and used in these infections only when other urinary anti-infectives likely to be ineffective or cannot be used.143 237 241 243 275 282 283 426
Alternative for postexposure prophylaxis following suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized anthrax spores (inhalational anthrax)† when oral ciprofloxacin and oral doxycycline are not available.620
Alternative for treatment of inhalational anthrax† when a parenteral regimen is not available (e.g., supply or logistic problems because large numbers of individuals require treatment in a mass casualty setting).620 A multiple-drug parenteral regimen (ciprofloxacin or doxycycline and 1 or 2 other anti-infectives predicted to be effective) is preferred for initial treatment of inhalational anthrax that occurs as the result of exposure to anthrax spores in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism.620 483
Alternative for treatment of urogenital chlamydial infections.319 CDC and others recommend azithromycin or doxycycline as drugs of choice;319 328 erythromycin,319 328 ofloxacin,319 or levofloxacin319 328 are alternatives.
Gonorrhea and Associated Infections
Has been used for treatment of acute, uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal† gonorrhea or for follow-up treatment of disseminated gonococcal infections caused by susceptible Neisseria gonorrhoeae.1 289 290 291 294 296 300 486 487 500
Treatment of acute epididymitis†.319 328 CDC recommends an initial regimen of IM ceftriaxone and oral doxycycline in all patients;319 additional therapy includes ofloxacin or levofloxacin, but fluoroquinolones should be used alone only when epididymitis is most likely caused by sexually transmitted enteric bacteria (e.g., E. coli) or when nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) is negative for N. gonorrhoeae.319 328
Because quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae (QRNG) is widely disseminated worldwide, including in the US319 328 642 671 673 (see Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae under Cautions), CDC and others no longer recommend ofloxacin for treatment of gonorrhea or any associated infections that may involve N. gonorrhoeae (e.g., pelvic inflammatory disease [PID], epididymitis).319 328 671 673
CDC, ATS, and IDSA state that use of fluoroquinolones can be considered in patients with relapse, treatment failure, or Mycobacterium tuberculosis resistant to isoniazid and/or rifampin or when first-line drugs cannot be tolerated.638 There have been recent reports of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR tuberculosis).645 646 XDR tuberculosis is caused by M. tuberculosis resistant to rifampin and isoniazid (multiple-drug resistant strains) that also are resistant to a fluoroquinolone and at least one parenteral second-line antimycobacterial (capreomycin, kanamycin, amikacin).645 646
Although there is clinical experience with several fluoroquinolones in the treatment of tuberculosis (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin),456 563 638 647 653 655 656 657 658 levofloxacin and moxifloxacin are the fluoroquinolones recommended by CDC, ATS, and IDSA and levofloxacin may be preferred on the basis of cumulative experience.638 The most recent CDC, ATS, and IDSA recommendations for treatment of tuberculosis should be consulted for more specific information.638
Alternative for use in multiple-drug regimens for treatment of multibacillary leprosy†.566 613 617 WHO recommends ofloxacin as an alternative for multibacillary leprosy regimens in patients who will not accept or cannot tolerate clofazimine566 613 617 and when rifampin cannot be used because of adverse effects, intercurrent disease (e.g., chronic hepatitis), or infection with rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.613 617
Component of a single-dose rifampin-based multiple-drug regimen (ROM) for treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy† (i.e., a single skin lesion with definite loss of sensation but without nerve trunk involvement).613 614 617 618 619
Treatment of postoperative sternotomy wound or soft tissue infections caused by M. fortuitum†.256 317 332 333 479 Also has been used for treatment of M. fortuitum pulmonary infections104 332 479 or UTIs.489 ATS and IDSA recommend that M. fortuitum pulmonary infections be treated with a regimen consisting of at least 2 anti-infectives selected based on results of in vitro susceptibility testing and tolerability (e.g., amikacin, ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin, a sulfonamide, cefoxitin, imipenem, doxycycline).674
Nongonococcal Urethritis and Cervicitis
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Has been used for treatment of acute PID caused by susceptible C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae.1 319 328 Do not use in any infections that may involve N. gonorrhoeae.319 328 671 673 (See Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae under Cautions.)
When an oral regimen used for treatment of mild to moderately severe acute PID, CDC recommends a single IM dose of ceftriaxone, cefoxitin (with oral probenecid), or cefotaxime given in conjunction with oral doxycycline (with or without oral metronidazole).319 Although fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for PID, if a parenteral cephalosporin is not feasible, a regimen of oral levofloxacin or oral ofloxacin given with or without oral metronidazole may be considered if the community prevalence and individual risk of gonorrhea are low.319
Alternative for treatment of plague† caused by Yersinia pestis, including naturally occurring plague and plague that occurs following exposure to Y. pestis in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism.628 629 Regimen of choice is streptomycin (or gentamicin) with or without doxycycline;292 628 629 alternatives are doxycycline, chloramphenicol (drug of choice for plague meningitis), fluoroquinolones, or co-trimoxazole (may be less effective than other alternatives).292 566 628 629
Postexposure prophylaxis† following a high risk exposure to Y. pestis (e.g., household, hospital, or other close contact with an individual who has pneumonic plague; laboratory exposure to viable Y. pestis; confirmed exposure in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism).628 629 Drugs of choice for such prophylaxis are doxycycline (or tetracycline) or a fluoroquinolone (e.g., ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin); chloramphenicol is an alternative.628 629
Alternative to tetracyclines for treatment of rickettsial infections†.325 326 560 566 Has been used for treatment of acute Q fever pneumonia caused by Coxiella burnetii†325 560 and Mediterranean spotted fever caused by Rickettsia conorii†.326 Has been used in conjunction with doxycycline for long-term treatment of Q fever endocarditis†,490 560 but may be less effective than a regimen of doxycycline and hydroxychloroquine.490
Typhoid Fever and Other Salmonella Infections
Selective Decontamination of the GI Tract
Ofloxacin Dosage and Administration
May be given without regard to meals.1 Presence of food in the GI tract can decrease the rate and/or extent of absorption of ofloxacin; not usually considered clinically important.1 176 189 420 464 649 650 651 Milk and yogurt do not appear to affect GI absorption.649 650 (See Pharmacokinetics.)
Patients should be well hydrated and should be instructed to drink fluids liberally to avoid formation of highly concentrated urine.1
Single-lesion Paucibacillary Leprosy†Oral
Children 5–14 years of age: WHO recommends a single-dose ROM regimen that includes a single 300-mg dose of rifampin, a single 200-mg dose of ofloxacin, and a single 50-mg dose of minocycline.615
Children <5 years of age: WHO recommends that an appropriately adjusted dose of each drug in the above single-dose ROM regimen be used.615
General Adult Dosage
200–400 mg every 12 hours.1
Duration of treatment depends on the type and severity of infection and should be determined by clinical and bacteriologic response of the patient.344
Treatment of Travelers’ Diarrhea†Oral
Prevention of Travelers’ Diarrhea†Oral
Although anti-infective prophylaxis generally discouraged,305 525 some clinicians state it can be given during period of risk (for ≤3 weeks) beginning day of travel and continuing for 1 or 2 days after leaving area of risk.588 589 612
Respiratory Tract Infections
Acute Bacterial Exacerbations of Chronic BronchitisOral
400 mg every 12 hours for 10 days.1
400 mg every 12 hours for 10 days.1
Skin and Skin Structure Infections
400 mg every 12 hours for 10 days.1
Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) and Prostatitis
Uncomplicated Cystitis Caused by E. coli or K. pneumoniaeOral
200 mg every 12 hours for 3 days.1
Uncomplicated Cystitis Caused by Other Susceptible BacteriaOral
200 mg every 12 hours for 7 days.1
200 mg every 12 hours for 10 days.1
Prostatitis Caused by E. coliOral
Postexposure Prophylaxis Following Exposure in the Context of Biologic Warfare or Bioterrorism†Oral
Optimum duration of postexposure prophylaxis after an inhalation exposure to B. anthracis spores is unclear,554 628 but prolonged postexposure prophylaxis usually required.620 628 A duration of 60 days may be adequate for a low-dose exposure, but a duration >4 months may be necessary to reduce the risk following a high-dose exposure.554 CDC, US Working Group on Civilian Biodefense, and US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) recommend that postexposure prophylaxis in unvaccinated individuals be continued for ≥60 days following a confirmed exposure (including in laboratory workers with confirmed exposures to B. anthracis cultures).532 620 621 628 The USPHS Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and USAMRIID recommend that individuals who are partially or fully vaccinated against anthrax receive postexposure prophylaxis for ≥30 days;522 628 if given in conjunction with anthrax vaccine, continue prophylaxis for at least 7–14 days after the third vaccine dose.533 628
Treatment of Inhalational Anthrax in a Mass Casualty Setting†Oral
400 mg twice daily for ≥60 days.620
400 mg once daily in conjunction with oral rifampin (600 mg once daily) given for 6 weeks was effective in some patients.561
Gonorrhea and Associated Infections
Uncomplicated Urethral, Endocervical, or Rectal† GonorrheaOral
Not recommended by CDC or others for treatment of gonorrhea or any associated infections that may involve N. gonorrhoeae (e.g., PID, epididymitis).319 328 671 673 (See Gonorrhea and Associated Infections under Uses.)
Use only when epididymitis† most likely caused by sexually transmitted enteric bacteria (e.g., E. coli) or when NAAT negative for N. gonorrhoeae.319 328 (See Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae under Cautions.)
400 mg every 12 hours for 2–3 weeks.564
Treatment of multibacillary leprosy† in adults who cannot receive rifampin because of adverse effects, intercurrent disease (e.g., chronic hepatitis), or infection with rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae: WHO recommends supervised administration of a regimen of clofazimine (50 mg daily), ofloxacin (400 mg daily), and minocycline (100 mg daily) given for 6 months, followed by a regimen of clofazimine (50 mg daily) and minocycline (100 mg daily) given for at least an additional 18 months.613 616 617 618
Treatment of multibacillary leprosy† in adults who will not accept or cannot tolerate clofazimine:104 108 WHO recommends supervised administration of a once-monthly ROM regimen that includes rifampin (600 mg once monthly), ofloxacin (400 mg once monthly), and minocycline (100 mg once monthly) given for 24 months.613 617
Treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy† in certain patient groups: WHO recommends a single-dose ROM regimen that includes a single 600-mg dose of rifampin, a single 400-mg dose of ofloxacin, and a single 100-mg dose of minocycline.613 617
M. fortuitum Infections†Oral
Treatment of postoperative sternotomy wound or soft tissue infections: 300 mg once daily or 1.2 g daily in 3 or 4 divided doses has been given for 3–6 months in conjunction with amikacin (usually 250 mg IM or IV twice daily for 4–8 weeks).256
Treatment of pulmonary infections: ATS and IDSA recommend a regimen consisting of at least 2 anti-infectives (see Mycobacterial Infections under Uses) given for at least 12 months after negative sputum cultures are attained.674
Treatment of serious skin, bone, or soft tissue infections: ATS and IDSA recommend a regimen consisting of at least 2 anti-infectives (see Mycobacterial Infections under Uses)given for at least 4 months for infections involving skin or soft tissue or 6 months for those involving bone.674
Nongonococcal Urethritis and Cervicitis
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
Use only when cephalosporins not feasible, community prevalence and individual risk of gonorrhea is low, and in vitro susceptibility confirmed.319 (See Pelvic Inflammatory Disease under Uses.)
Mediterranean Spotted Fever†Oral
200 mg every 12 hours for 7 days was effective in some patients.326
Typhoid Fever and Other Salmonella Infections†
Mild to Moderate Typhoid Fever†Oral
Maximum dosage of 400 mg daily in those with severe hepatic impairment (e.g., cirrhosis with or without ascites).1
Usual initial dose, then usual dose once every 24 hours1
Usual initial dose, then 50% of usual dose once every 24 hours1
No dosage adjustments except those related to renal impairment.1 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)
Cautions for Ofloxacin
Known hypersensitivity to ofloxacin or other quinolones.1
Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture
Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, are associated with increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all age groups.1 675 676 680 This risk is further increased in older adults (usually those >60 years of age), individuals receiving concomitant corticosteroids, and kidney, heart, or lung transplant recipients.1 675 676 680 (See Geriatric use under Cautions.)
Other factors that may independently increase risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.675 676 680 Tendinitis and tendon rupture have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones who did not have any of these risk factors.680
Fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture most frequently involve the Achilles tendon and may require surgical repair.675 676 680 Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (shoulder), hand, biceps, thumb, and other tendon sites also reported.680
Tendon rupture can occur during or following fluoroquinolone therapy and has been reported up to several months after completion of therapy.680
Discontinue if pain, swelling, inflammation, or rupture of a tendon occurs.1 675 676 680 Advise patients to rest and refrain from exercise and contact a clinician at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture (e.g., pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon; weakness or inability to use a joint).1 675 676 680 (See Advice to Patients.)
Myasthenia Gravis Patients
Avoid use in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis.1
Fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, cause arthropathy and osteochondrosis in immature animals of various species.1 339 342 359 413 417 420 421 428 446 464 Relevance of these adverse effects in immature animals to use in humans unknown.337 428 464 678 679 Safety and efficacy of ofloxacin not established in children and adolescents <18 years of age (see Pediatric Use under Cautions)or in pregnant or lactating women (see Pregnancy and see Lactation under Cautions).1
Seizures, toxic psychoses, and increased intracranial pressure and CNS stimulation, which may lead to tremor, restlessness/agitation, nervousness/anxiety, lightheadedness, confusion, hallucinations, paranoia, depression, nightmares, insomnia, and, rarely, suicidal thoughts or acts, have been reported with quinolones, including ofloxacin.1
Use with caution in patients with known or suspected CNS disorders (e.g., severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, epilepsy) or other risk factors that predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (e.g., certain drugs, renal impairment).1
If CNS effects occur, discontinue ofloxacin and institute appropriate measures.1
Sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias, and weakness reported with fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin.1 Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of the drug and may be irreversible.1
Immediately discontinue ofloxacin if symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (e.g., pain, burning, tingling, numbness, weakness) occur or if there are alterations in sensations (e.g., light touch, pain, temperature, position sense, vibratory sensation).1
Prolongation of QT Interval
Prolonged QT interval leading to ventricular arrhythmias, including torsades de pointes, reported with some fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin.1
Avoid use in patients with prolonged QT interval or uncorrected electrolyte disorders (e.g., hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia).1 Also avoid use in those receiving class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.1 Risk may be increased in geriatric patients.1 (See Geriatric Use under Cautions.)
Superinfection/Clostridium difficile-associated Diarrhea and Colitis (CDAD)
Treatment with anti-infectives alters normal colon flora and may permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile.1 607 609 610 663 C. difficile infection (CDI) and C. difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis (CDAD; also known as antibiotic-associated diarrhea and colitis or pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with nearly all anti-infectives, including ofloxacin, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis.1 341 343 352 353 350 351 355 356 607 609 610 C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to development of CDAD;1 607 hypertoxin-producing strains of C. difficile are associated with increased morbidity and mortality since they may be refractory to anti-infectives and colectomy may be required.1
Consider CDAD if diarrhea develops during or after anti-infective therapy and manage accordingly.1 607 609 610 Obtain careful medical history since CDAD may occur as late as 2 months or longer after anti-infective therapy is discontinued.1
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, discontinue anti-infectives not directed against C. difficile whenever possible.1 607 609 610 Initiate appropriate supportive therapy (e.g., fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation), anti-infective therapy directed against C. difficile (e.g., metronidazole, vancomycin), and surgical evaluation as clinically indicated.1 607 609 610
Some hypersensitivity reactions have been accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, hypotension or shock, seizures, loss of consciousness, tingling, angioedema (e.g., edema or swelling of the tongue, larynx, throat, or face), airway obstruction (e.g., bronchospasm, shortness of breath, acute respiratory distress), urticaria, pruritus, and other severe skin reactions.1
In addition, other possible severe and potentially fatal reactions (may be hypersensitivity reactions or of unknown etiology) have been reported most frequently after multiple doses.1 These include fever, rash or other severe dermatologic reactions (e.g., toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome), vasculitis, arthralgia, myalgia, serum sickness, allergic pneumonitis, interstitial nephritis, acute renal insufficiency or failure, hepatitis, jaundice, acute hepatic necrosis or failure, anemia (including hemolytic and aplastic), thrombocytopenia (including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura), leukopenia, agranulocytosis, pancytopenia and/or other hematologic effects.1
Discontinue ofloxacin at first appearance of rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity.1 Institute appropriate therapy as indicated (e.g., epinephrine, corticosteroids, maintenance of an adequate airway and oxygen).1
Moderate to severe photosensitivity reactions reported with fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin.1
Avoid unnecessary exposure to sunlight or artificial UV light (sunlamps, solariums).1
Discontinue ofloxacin if photosensitivity (e.g., skin eruption) occurs.1
Selection and Use of Anti-infectives
When prescribing a fluoroquinolone, consider potential benefits and risks for the individual patient.675 676 Most patients tolerate the drugs, but serious adverse reactions (e.g., CNS effects, QT prolongation, C. difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis, damage to liver, kidneys, or bone marrow, alterations in glucose homeostasis) may occur rarely.675 676
To reduce development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of ofloxacin and other antibacterials, use only for treatment or prevention of infections proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.1
When selecting or modifying anti-infective therapy, use results of culture and in vitro susceptibility testing.1 In the absence of such data, consider local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns when selecting anti-infectives for empiric therapy.1
Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae
US data indicate that QRNG has continued to increase among men who have sex with men and among heterosexual males and is now present in all regions of the country.671
CDC and others state that fluoroquinolones, including ofloxacin, should not be used to treat gonorrhea or any associated infections that may involve N. gonorrhoeae (e.g., PID, epididymitis).319 328 671 673
Periodically assess organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic, during therapy.1
AAP states use of fluoroquinolones may be justified in children <18 years of age in special circumstances after careful assessment of the risks and benefits for the individual patient and after these benefits and risks have been explained to the parents and/or caregivers.110 292
No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults.1
Risk of severe tendon disorders, including tendon rupture, is increased in geriatric adults >60 years of age.1 675 676 680 This risk is further increased in those receiving concomitant corticosteroids.1 675 676 680 (See Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture under Cautions.) Use caution in geriatric adults, especially those receiving concomitant corticosteroids.680
Risk of QT interval prolongation leading to ventricular arrhythmias may be increased in geriatric patients, especially those receiving concurrent therapy with other drugs that can prolong QT interval (e.g., class IA or III antiarrhythmic agents) or with risk factors for torsades de pointes (e.g., known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia).1 (See Prolongation of QT Interval under Cautions.)
Consider age-related decreases in renal function when selecting dosage and adjust dosage if necessary.1 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)
Use with caution; perform appropriate hepatic function tests prior to and during therapy.1
Decreased clearance and increased half-life.1
Use with caution; perform appropriate renal function tests prior to and during therapy.1
Common Adverse Effects
GI effects (nausea, diarrhea, vomiting); nervous system effects (headache, dizziness, insomnia); rash; genital pruritus.1
Interactions for Ofloxacin
Drugs That Prolong QT Interval
Potential pharmacologic interaction (additive effect on QT interval prolongation).1 Avoid use in patients receiving class IA (e.g., quinidine, procainamide) or class III (e.g., amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents.1 (See Prolongation of QT Interval under Cautions.)
Specific Drugs and Laboratory Tests
Drug or Test
Antacids (aluminum-, magnesium-, or calcium-containing)
Anticoagulants, oral (warfarin)
Antidiabetic agents (glyburide, glibenclamide, insulin)
Blood glucose alterations (including hypoglycemia) reported in diabetic patients1
Closely monitor blood glucose concentrations1
No evidence of clinically important effects on pharmacokinetics of caffeine;1 189 365 366 398 399 400 401 402 427 454 some other fluoroquinolones (e.g., ciprofloxacin) may affect caffeine pharmacokinetics189 365 366 398 399 400 401 402 427 454
Restrictions on caffeine intake not considered necessary398
Decreased absorption of ofloxacin with buffered didanosine preparations1
Administer ofloxacin at least 2 hours before or after buffered didanosine (pediatric oral solution admixed with antacid) 1
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists (cimetidine, ranitidine)
Decreased absorption of ofloxacin1
Administer ofloxacin at least 2 hours before or after ferrous sulfate and dietary supplements containing iron1
Multivitamins and mineral supplements
Decreased absorption of ofloxacin1
Administer ofloxacin at least 2 hours before or after supplements containing zinc or iron1
Tests for opiates
Possible false-positive results with immunoassay kits for urine screening1
Confirmation of positive opiate test results using more specific methods may be necessary1
Possible increased theophylline concentrations and increased risk of theophylline-related adverse effects with fluoroquinolones1 181 189 191 365 366 367 368 378 379 380 382 383 384 385 386 387 389 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 416 427 464
Extent of this interaction varies considerably among the fluoroquinolones; the effect is less pronounced with norfloxacin or ofloxacin than with ciprofloxacin191 367 368 378 379 384 386 387 389 392 393 394 396 397 427
If used concomitantly, closely monitor patient and theophylline concentrations and make appropriate theophylline dosage adjustments as needed1
Food can decrease rate and/or extent of absorption of ofloxacin;1 172 176 189 420 464 649 650 651 not usually considered clinically important.1 172 189 464 649 Milk and yogurt do not appear to affect GI absorption.649 650
Widely distributed into body tissues and fluids,1 181 183 189 including bone,183 214 432 cartilage,432 bile,183 197 217 skin,1 sputum,1 183 189 195 214 430 bronchial secretions,189 196 206 214 230 pleural effusions,534 tonsils,203 saliva,185 186 192 gingival mucosa,186 nasal secretions,183 aqueous humor,214 215 tears,183 sweat,183 lung,1 183 189 205 219 228 430 blister fluid,1 183 189 192 226 pancreatic fluid,201 217 ascitic fluid,212 peritoneal fluid,225 458 gynecologic tissue,183 189 vaginal fluid,200 cervix,1 ovary,1 semen,453 prostatic fluid,1 181 183 198 202 214 and prostatic tissue.1 181 183 198 202 214
Plasma Protein Binding
<10% of a dose is metabolized;182 188 191 approximately 3–6% of the dose metabolized to desmethyl ofloxacin and 1–5% metabolized to ofloxacin N-oxide.169 175 182 190 191 Desmethyl ofloxacin is microbiologically active, but is less active against susceptible organisms than is ofloxacin; ofloxacin N-oxide has only minimal antibacterial activity.221
Ofloxacin and its metabolites eliminated in both urine and feces.1 175 185 Following a single oral dose, 65–90% of the dose eliminated unchanged in urine within 48 hours;1 169 171 175 178 210 <5% of the dose in urine as metabolites.1 175 210 Approximately 4–8% of the dose excreted in feces.1 169
In healthy geriatric adults 64–86 years of age with renal function normal for their age, half-life averages 6.4–8.5 hours.1 187 The slower elimination in geriatric individuals presumably is due to reduced renal function and clearance in this age group.1
Pharmacokinetics not fully evaluated in those with hepatic impairment.464
Serum concentrations are higher and half-life prolonged in adults with impaired renal function.1 174 181 182 189 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 420 431 458 464 Half-life averages 16.4 hours (range: 11–33.5 hours) in adults with Clcr 10–50 mL/minute and 21.7 hours (range: 16.9–28.4 hours) in those with Clcr <10 mL/minute.190 In patients with end-stage renal failure, half-life may range from 25–48 hours.227
Actions and Spectrum
Spectrum of activity includes many gram-positive aerobic bacteria, many gram-negative aerobic bacteria, and some other organisms (e.g., Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, Mycobacterium, Rickettsia).1 3 9 12 76 78 80 100 103 104 105 107 108 109 413 414 417 418 420 464 Inactive against fungi and viruses.413 464
In vitro activity against susceptible gram-positive bacteria approximately equal to that of ciprofloxacin;6 9 10 12 32 189 414 417 419 420 421 464 in vitro activity against susceptible gram-negative bacteria slightly less than that of ciprofloxacin.9 12 15 23 32 35 118 189 414 417 420 421 469 Generally less active against gram-positive than gram-negative bacteria.3 9 12 413 414 417 418 421
Gram-positive aerobic cocci: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against S. aureus (oxacillin-susceptible [methicillin-susceptible] strains only),1 S. epidermidis (oxacillin-susceptible strains only),1 S. pneumoniae (penicillin-susceptible strains),1 S. pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci),1 S. saprophyticus, and Enterococcus faecalis.3 6 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 22 23 25 26 27 28 31 32 34 74 114 504 Also active in vitro against some other staphylococci (e.g., S. haemolyticus, S. hominis), some penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, viridans streptococci, groups C, F, and G streptococci, and nonenterococcal group D streptococci.1 14 21 22 23 29 35
Gram-positive aerobic bacilli: Active against Bacillus anthracis,621 622 630 631 Corynebacterium,21 25 26 32 62 66 and Listeria monocytogenes.21 22 25 26 27 32 34 37 420 Nocardia asteroides usually are resistant.32 35 63 420 504
Gram-negative aerobes: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against Campylobacter jejuni, H. influenzae, H. parainfluenzae, M. catarrhalis, Ps. aeruginosa, and most Enterobacteriaceae (including Citrobacter, Edwardsiella, Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, M. morganii, P. mirabilis, P. vulgaris, Providencia, Salmonella, Shigella, Serratia, Yersinia enterocolitica).1 3 6 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 23 26 27 28 31 32 34 52 420 467 504 Also active in vitro against Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Brucella, Francisella tularensis, Legionella pneumophila, Vibrio, and Yersinia pestis.3 13 21 22 25 27 32 34 37 75 79 92 97 420 469 623 624 625 627 Burkholderia cepacia are resistant.12 21 25 27 34 37 50 58 75
Other organisms: Active in vitro and in clinical infections against by C. pneumoniae,1 32 34 45 82 83 84 85 86 88 90 569 M. pneumoniae,87 91 420 464 568 M. tuberculosis,93 94 96 98 99 100 105 108 M. fortuitum,256 332 333 674 and other mycobacteria.98 99 104
N. gonorrhoeae with decreased susceptibility to ofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones (quinolone-resistant N. gonorrhoeae; QRNG) are widely disseminated worldwide, including in the US.319 578 580 581 583 584 585 642 671
Advice to Patients
Advise patients that antibacterials (including ofloxacin) should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not used to treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold).1
Importance of completing full course of therapy, even if feeling better after a few days.1
Advise patients that skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may decrease effectiveness and increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable with ofloxacin or other antibacterials in the future.1
Importance of taking ofloxacin at least 2 hours before or after multivitamins containing calcium, magnesium, or zinc; aluminum- or magnesium-containing antacids; or buffered didanosine (pediatric oral solution admixed with antacid).1
May be taken without regard to meals.1
Importance of drinking sufficient quantities of fluids during therapy.1
Importance of discontinuing ofloxacin and informing clinician if rash, hives, or other manifestation suggesting allergic reaction (e.g., rapid heart beat, difficulty swallowing or breathing, swelling of lips, tongue, face, tightness in throat or hoarseness) occurs.1
Increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all age groups and further increased risk in adults >60 years of age, individuals receiving corticosteroids, and kidney, heart, or lung transplant recipients.1 675 676 680 Importance of resting and refraining from exercise at the first sign of tendinitis or tendon rupture (e.g., pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon; weakness or inability to use a joint), discontinuing the drug, and contacting a clinician regarding changing to an anti-infective that is not a fluoroquinolone.1 675 676 680 (See Tendinopathy and Tendon Rupture under Cautions.)
Advise patients that ofloxacin may worsen myasthenia gravis symptoms; importance of immediately contacting clinician if any worsening muscle weakness or breathing problems occur.1
Potential for ofloxacin to cause dizziness and lightheadedness; need for caution when operating machinery or driving a motor vehicle until effects of drug on individual are known.1
Advise patients to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial UV light during therapy and to discontinue ofloxacin if phototoxicity occurs.1
Advise patients that seizures have been reported and to contact clinicians before taking ofloxacin if they have a history of seizures.1
Advise patients that peripheral neuropathies have been reported with ofloxacin and that symptoms may occur soon after initiation of the drug and may be irreversible.1 Importance of immediately discontinuing the drug and contacting clinician if symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (e.g., pain, burning, tingling, numbness, weakness) occur.1
Importance of discontinuing ofloxacin and consulting clinician if symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (e.g., pain, burning, tingling, numbness, weakness) develop.1
Advise patients that diarrhea is a common problem caused by anti-infectives and usually ends when the drug is discontinued.1 Importance of contacting a clinician if watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) occur during or as late as 2 months or longer after the last dose.1
Advise diabetic patients that hypoglycemic reactions have been reported and to discontinue ofloxacin and contact a clinician if a hypoglycemic reaction occurs.1
Importance of informing clinician of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of advising patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name
This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 11/2013. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.
Ofloxacin 200MG Tablets (RANBAXY PHARMACEUTICALS): 14/$66.99 or 42/$179.97
Ofloxacin 300MG Tablets (TEVA PHARMACEUTICALS USA): 14/$65.99 or 42/$185.95
AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2013, Selected Revisions October 12, 2013. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Teva Pharmaceuticals USA Inc. Ofloxacin tablets prescribing information. Sellersville, PA; 2013 Jul.
2. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. The fluoroquinolones: pharmacology, clinical uses, and toxicities in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 28:716-21. [IDIS 208219] [PubMed 2936302]
3. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. The fluoroquinolones: structures, mechanisms of action and resistance, and spectra of activity in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 28:581-6. [IDIS 207617] [PubMed 3000292]
4. Felmingham D, Foxall P, O’Hare MD et al. Resistance studies with ofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):27-34. [PubMed 3182460]
5. Neu HC. Chemical evolution of the fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):2-9S. [IDIS 262515] [PubMed 2500854]
6. Sato K, Matsuura Y, Inoue M et al. In vitro and in vivo activity of DL-8280, a new oxine derivative. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1982; 22:548-53. [IDIS 159400] [PubMed 6960805]
8. Shah PM, Schafer V, Hubener T et al. Bactericidal activity of ofloxacin versus roxithromycin in the treatment of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):9-13. [IDIS 245944] [PubMed 3481332]
9. Van Caekenberghe DL, Pattyn SR. In vitro activity of ciprofloxacin compared with those of other new fluorinated piperazinyl-substituted quinoline derivatives. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984; 25:518-21. [IDIS 223928] [PubMed 6732221]
10. Bauernfeind A, Ullmann U. In-vitro activity of enoxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and nalidixic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1984; 14(Suppl C): 33-7. [PubMed 6238931]
12. Kumada T, Neu HC. In-vitro activity of ofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compared to other quinolones and other antimicrobial agents. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1985; 16:563-74. [PubMed 3865923]
13. Neu HC. The in-vitro activity of EN 272, a quinolone-7-carboxylic acid, in comparison with other quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1985; 16:43-8. [PubMed 3862659]
14. Chantot JF, Bryskier A. Antibacterial activity of ofloxacin and other 4-quinolone derivatives: in-vitro and in-vivo comparison. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1985; 16:475-84. [PubMed 3864775]
15. Digranes A, Dibb WL, Benonisen E. In vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, norfloxacin and rosoxacin compared with cinoxacin and trimethoprim. Chemotherapy. 1985; 31:466-71. [IDIS 211006] [PubMed 2934234]
16. Aldridge KE, Schiro DD, Sanders CV. Pefloxacin (RB 1589): an in vitro comparison with other oral antimicrobial agents and imipenem. Curr Ther Res. 1986; 40:1103-13.
17. Barry AL, Thornsberry C, Jones RN. In vitro evaluation of A-56619 and A-56620, two new quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:40-3. [IDIS 223866] [PubMed 2942099]
18. Smith SM. In vitro comparison of A-56619, A-56620, amifloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, and ofloxacin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:325-6. [IDIS 212794] [PubMed 2940966]
19. Hirai K, Aoyama H, Hosaka M et al. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activity of AM-833, a new quinolone derivative. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:1059-66. [PubMed 2942103]
20. Liebowitz LD, Saunders J, Fehler G et al. In vitro activity of A-56619 (difloxacin), A-56620, and other new quinolone antimicrobial agents against genital pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 30:948-50. [IDIS 224012] [PubMed 3101590]
21. Mandell W, Neu HC. In vitro activity of CI-934, a new quinolone, compared with that of other quinolones and other antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:852-7. [PubMed 3729343]
22. Chin NX, Brittain DC, Neu HC. In vitro activity of Ro 23-6240, a new fluorinated 4-quinolone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:675-80. [IDIS 215029] [PubMed 3085584]
23. King A, Phillips I. The comparative in-vitro activity of eight newer quinolones and nalidixic acid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1986; 28(Suppl D): 1-20.
24. Willems FT. Quinolones in vitro. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:26-8. [IDIS 214001] [PubMed 3960690]
25. Hirschhorn L, Neu HC. In vitro activity of two new aryl-fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents, difloxacin (A-56619) and A-56620 compared to that of other antimicrobial agents. Chemotherapy. 1987; 33:28-39. [IDIS 226233] [PubMed 3549179]
26. Espinoza AM, Chin NX, Novelli A et al. Comparative in vitro activity of a new fluorinated 4-quinolone, T-3262 (A-60969). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:663-70. [PubMed 3293524]
27. Chin NX, Novelli A, Neu HC. In vitro activity of lomefloxacin (SC-47111; NY-198), a difluoroquinolone 3-carboxylic acid, compared with those of other quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:656-62. [PubMed 3164987]
28. Une T, Fujimoto T, Sato K et al. In vitro activity of DR-3355, an optically active ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32: 1336-40.
29. Etienne J, Coulet M, Brun Y et al. Susceptibilities of streptococcal strains associated with infective endocarditis to nine antibiotics. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:113-6. [IDIS 240888] [PubMed 3391051]
30. Smith SM, Eng RH, Cherubin CE. Conditions affecting the results of susceptibility testing for the quinolone compounds. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:308-14. [IDIS 244797] [PubMed 3208548]
31. Digranes A, Dibb WL. In vitro activities of A-56619 (difloxacin) and A-56620, two aryl fluoroquinolones. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:298-307. [IDIS 244796] [PubMed 3208547]
32. Gruneberg RN, Felmingham D, O’Hare MD et al. The comparative in-vitro activity of ofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):9-19. [PubMed 3182468]
34. Fung-Tomc J, Desiderio JV, Tsai YH et al. In vitro and in vivo antibacterial activities of BMY 40062, a new fluoronaphthyridone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:906-14. [IDIS 255721] [PubMed 2764541]
35. Fuchs PC. In vitro antimicrobial activity and susceptibility testing of ofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):10s-13s. [IDIS 262516] [PubMed 2690614]
37. Osato MS, Jensen HG, Trousdale MD et al. The comparative in vitro activity of ofloxacin and selected ophthalmic antimicrobial agents against ocular bacterial isolates. Am J Ophthalmol. 1989; 108:380-6. [IDIS 268840] [PubMed 2519514]
38. Appelbaum PC, Spangler SK, Crotty E et al. Susceptibility of penicillin-sensitive and -resistant strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae to new antimicrobial agents, including daptomycin, teicoplanin, cefpodoxime and quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989; 23:509-16. [PubMed 2545656]
39. Kojima T, Inoue M, Mitsuhashi S. In vitro activity of AT-4140 against quinolone- and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:1123-7. [PubMed 2393270]
40. Maple PA, Hamilton-Miller JM, Brumfitt W. Differing activities of quinolones against ciprofloxacin-susceptible and ciprofloxacin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:345-50. [IDIS 278272] [PubMed 1827242]
41. Peeters M, Van Dyck E, Piot P. In vitro activities of the spectinomycin analog U-63366 and four quinolone derivatives against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984; 26:608-9. [IDIS 193544] [PubMed 6240224]
43. Zeiler HJ. Influence of pH and human urine on the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1985; 11:335-8. [PubMed 2941261]
44. O’Hare MD, Felmingham D, Ridgway GL et al. The comparative in vitro activity of twelve 4-quinolone antimicrobials against enteric pathogens. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1985; 11:253-7. [PubMed 2941257]
45. Aznar J, Caballero MC, Loxano MC et al. Activities of new quinoline derivatives against genital pathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 27:76-8. [IDIS 195272] [PubMed 3920959]
46. Goossens H, De Mol P, Coignau H et al. Comparative in vitro activities of aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, HR 810 (a new cephalosporin), RU28965 (a new macrolide), and other agents against enteropathogens. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 27:388-92. [PubMed 3158276]
48. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM, Vagvolgyi AE et al. Susceptibility of Eikenella corrodens to newer and older quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 30:172-3. [IDIS 218666] [PubMed 3530124]
49. Ling J, Kam KM, Lam AW et al. Susceptibilities of Hong Kong isolates of multiply resistant Shigella spp. to 25 antimicrobial agents, including ampicillin plus sulbactam and new 4-quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:20-3. [IDIS 243870] [PubMed 3348608]
50. Winton MD, Everett ED, Dolan SA. Activities of five new fluoroquinolones against Pseudomonas pseudomallei. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:928-9. [PubMed 3415212]
52. Quentin R, Koubaa N, Cattier B et al. In vitro activities of five new quinolones against 88 genital and neonatal Haemophilus isolates. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:147-9. [IDIS 243880] [PubMed 3258143]
54. Lefevre JC, Tempesta MC, Gaubert E et al. In vitro activity of six quinolone derivatives against Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:315-7. [IDIS 244798] [PubMed 2850138]
58. Kuman A, Wofford-McQueen R, Gordon RC. In vitro activity of multiple antimicrobial combinations against Pseudomonas cepacia isolates. Chemotherapy. 1989; 35:246-53. [IDIS 259103] [PubMed 2766866]
59. Laurans G, Suermondt G, Denamur E et al. In vitro studies of quinolones against Branhamella catarrhalis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s927.
60. Dangor Y, Ballard RC, Miller SD et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Haemophilus ducreyi. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:1303-7. [IDIS 268546] [PubMed 2201248]
61. Van der Auwera P, Scorneaux B. In vitro susceptibility of Campylobacter jejuni to 27 antimicrobial agents and various combinations of β-lactams with clavulanic acid or sulbactam. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 28:37-40. [IDIS 203395] [PubMed 2994557]
62. Fernandex-Roblas R, Prieto S, Santamaria M et al. Activity of nine antimicrobial agents against Corynebacterium group D2 strains isolated from clinical specimens and skin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:821-2. [IDIS 229470] [PubMed 3606082]
63. Gombert ME, Aulicino TM, DuBouchet L et al. Susceptibility of Nocardia asteroides to new quinolones and β-lactams. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:2013-4. [IDIS 253335] [PubMed 3326528]
65. Hagedorn HJ, Kraminer-Hagedorn A, Diekmann U. In vitro activity of quinolones against Bordetella pertussis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s931.
66. Fernandex-Roblas R, Jimenez-Arriero M, Romero M et al. In vitro activity of quinolones and other agents against problematic gram-positive pathogens. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S931.
67. Garcia-Rodriguez JA, Garcia Sanchez JE, Trujillano I. Lack of effective bactericidal activity of new quinolones against Brucella spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:756-9. [PubMed 2069383]
68. Hoppe JE, Simon CG. In vitro susceptibilities of Bordetella pertussis and Bordetella parapertussis to seven fluoroquinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:2287-8. [IDIS 273727] [PubMed 2073123]
69. Delmee M, Avesani V. Comparative in vitro activity of seven quinolones against clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:374-5. [IDIS 212800] [PubMed 2940968]
70. Traub WH, Karthein J, Spohr M. Susceptibility of Clostridium perfringens type A to 23 antimicrobial drugs. Chemotherapy. 1986; 32:439-45. [IDIS 220951] [PubMed 2875853]
71. Edlund C, Nord CE. Comparative in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin and pefloxacin against Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium difficile. Scand J Infect Dis. 1986; 18:149-51. [IDIS 223877] [PubMed 2939556]
72. Glupczynski Y, Hansen W, Freney J et al. In vitro susceptibility of Alcaligenes denitrificans subsp xylosoxidans to 24 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:276-8. [IDIS 243671] [PubMed 3163242]
73. Kurzynski TA, Boehm DM, Rott-Petri JA et al. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of Bordetella species isolated in a multicenter pertussis surveillance project. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:137-40. [IDIS 243878] [PubMed 2894817]
74. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM. Comparative activities of cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, and ofloxacin against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolated from bite wounds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1143-8. [IDIS 248584] [PubMed 3190202]
75. Appelbaum PC, Spangler SK, Tamarree T. Susceptibility of 310 nonfermentative gram-negative bacteria to aztreonam, carumonam, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and fleroxacin. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:40-5. [IDIS 239248] [PubMed 3127127]
76. Raoult D, Yeaman MR, Baca OG. Susceptibility of Coxiella burnetii to pefloxacin and ofloxacin in ovo and in persistently infected L929 cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:621-3. [PubMed 2751278]
78. Yeaman MR, Roman MJ, Baca OG. Antibiotic susceptibilities of two Coxiella burnetii isolates implicated in distinct clinical syndromes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:105207.
79. Kropec A, Daschner F. In vitro activity of fleroxacin and 6 other antimicrobials against Acinetobacter anitratus. Chemotherapy. 1989; 35:360-2. [IDIS 259932] [PubMed 2507235]
80. Raoult D, Yeaman M, Baca O. Susceptibility of Rickettsia and Coxiella burnetii to quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s986.
82. Moller BR, Evans R, Kaspersen P et al. Activity of ofloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):181-2. [IDIS 245975] [PubMed 3481321]
83. Bailey JM, Heppleston C, Richmond SJ. Comparison of the in vitro activities of ofloxacin and tetracycline against Chlamydia trachomatis as assessed by indirect immunofluorescence. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1984; 26:13-6. [IDIS 187624] [PubMed 6383207]
84. Bianchi A, Scieux C, Salmeron CM et al. Rapid determination of MICs of 15 antichlamydial agents by using an enzyme immunoassay (chlamydiazyme). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1350-3. [IDIS 248087] [PubMed 3058019]
85. Ehret JM, Judson FN. Susceptibility testing of Chlamydia trachomatis: from eggs to monoclonal antibodies. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1295-9. [IDIS 248080] [PubMed 3058015]
86. Nagayama A, Nakao T, Taen H. In vitro activities of ofloxacin and four other new quinoline-carboxylic acids against Chlamydia trachomatis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1735-7. [PubMed 3150916]
87. Kenny GE, Hooton TM, Roberts MC et al. Susceptibilities of genital mycoplasmas to the newer quinolones as determined by the agar dilution method. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:103-7. [IDIS 249462] [PubMed 2712541]
88. Schachter J, Moncada JV. In vitro activity of ofloxacin against Chlamydia trachomatis. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):14s-16s. [IDIS 262517] [PubMed 2690615]
89. Garcia-Rodriguez JA, Garcia Sanchez JE, Trujillano I et al. In vitro activity of new quinolones against Brucella melitensis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s992-3.
90. Borsum T, Dannevig L, Storvold G et al. Chlamydia trachomatis: in vitro susceptibility of genital and ocular isolates to some quinolones, amoxicillin and azithromycin. Chemotherapy. 1990; 36:407-15. [IDIS 275777] [PubMed 1963393]
91. Osada Y, Ogawa H. Antimycoplasmal activity of ofloxacin (DL-8280). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983; 23:509-11. [IDIS 167356] [PubMed 6573869]
92. Ruckdeschel G, Ehret W, Ahl A. Susceptibility of Legionella sppl to quinolone derivatives and related organic acids. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1984; 3:373. [PubMed 6489330]
93. Tsukamura M. In vitro antituberculosis activity of a new antibacterial substance ofloxacin (DL8280). Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985; 131:348-51. [IDIS 197259] [PubMed 3919625]
94. Tsukamura M, Nakamura E, Yoshii S et al. Therapeutic effect of a new antibacterial substance ofloxacin (DL8280) on pulmonary tuberculosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1985; 131:352-6. [IDIS 197260] [PubMed 3856412]
95. Saito H, Tomioka H, Nagashima K. In vitro and in vivo activities of ofloxacin against Mycobacterium leprae infection induced in mice. Int J Leprosy. 1986; 54:560-2.
96. Fenlon CH, Cynamon MH. Comparative in vitro activities of ciprofloxacin and other 4-quinolones against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:386-8. [IDIS 211610] [PubMed 2940969]
97. Saito A, Koga H, Shigeno H et al. The antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin against Legionella species and the treatment of experimental Legionella pneumonia in guinea pigs. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1986; 18:251-60. [PubMed 3759736]
98. Young LS, Berlin OG, Inderlied CB. Activity of ciprofloxacin and other fluorinated quinolones against mycobacteria. Am J Med. 1987; 82(Suppl 4A):23-6. [IDIS 230493] [PubMed 3107379]
99. Davies S, Sparham PD, Spencer RC. Comparative in-vitro activity of five fluoroquinolones against mycobacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987; 19:605-9. [PubMed 3112094]
100. Heifets LB. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium complex. Tubercle. 1987; 68:267-76. [PubMed 3138801]
101. Divo AA, Sartorelli AC, Patton CL et al. Activity of fluoroquinolone antibiotics against Plasmodium falciparum in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1182-6. [IDIS 248585] [PubMed 2847647]
102. Midgley JM, Keter DW, Phillipson JD et al. Quinolones and multiresistant Plasmodium falciparum. Lancet. 1988; 2:281. [IDIS 244631] [PubMed 2899268]
103. Crowle AJ, Elkins N, May MH. Effectiveness of ofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium, and rifampin against M. tuberculosis in cultured human macrophages. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1988; 137:1141-6. [PubMed 3143278]
104. Leysen DC, Haemers A, Pattyn SR. Mycobacteria and the new quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1-5. [IDIS 249454] [PubMed 2540705]
105. Gorzynski EA, Gutman SI, Allen W. Comparative antimycobacterial activities of difloxacin, temafloxacin, enoxacin, pefloxacin, reference fluoroquinolones, and a new macrolide, clarithromycin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:591-2. [IDIS 254017] [PubMed 2524998]
106. Shalit I, Berger SA, Gorea A et al. Widespread quinolone resistance among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates in a general hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:593-4. [IDIS 254018] [PubMed 2729953]
107. Cooper JF, Lichtenstein MJ, Graham BS et al. Mycobacterium chelonae: a cause of nodular skin lesions with a proclivity for renal transplant recipients. Am J Med. 1989; 86:173-7. [IDIS 251001] [PubMed 2643868]
108. Chen CH, Shih JF, Lindholm-Levy PJ et al. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of rifabutin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated before treatment of patients in Taiwan. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1989; 140:987-9. [IDIS 310471] [PubMed 2552883]
109. Franzblau SG, White KE. Comparative in vitro activities of 20 fluoroquinolones against Mycobacterium leprae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:229-31. [IDIS 262910] [PubMed 2183714]
110. Bradley JS, Jackson MA, Committee on Infectious Diseases et al. The use of systemic and topical fluoroquinolones. Pediatrics. 2011; 128:e1034-45. [PubMed 21949152]
111. Piddock LJ, Wise R. The selection and frequency of streptococci with decreased susceptibility to ofloxacin compared with other quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):45-51. [PubMed 3182461]
112. Lewin CS, Smith JT, Hamilton-Miller JM et al. Gain of antibiotic sensitivity accompanying emergence of clinical ciprofloxacin resistance. Lancet. 1988; 1:1462-3. [IDIS 243938] [PubMed 2898615]
113. Kato N, Miyauchi M, Muto Y et al. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Bacteroides fragilis accompanied by resistance to β-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1437-8. [IDIS 248092] [PubMed 2848446]
114. Kresken M, Wiedemann B. Development of resistance to nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolones after the introduction of norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1285-8. [IDIS 248590] [PubMed 3142353]
115. Taylor DE, Courvalin P. Mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1107-12. [IDIS 248581] [PubMed 3056250]
116. Hirai K, Suzue S, Irikura T et al. Mutations producing resistance to norfloxacin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:582-6. [IDIS 227912] [PubMed 3111356]
118. Cullmann W, Stieglitz M, Baars B et al. Comparative evaluation of recently developed quinolone compounds—with a note on the frequency of resistant mutants. Chemotherapy. 1985; 31:19-28. [IDIS 195640] [PubMed 3156025]
119. Smith JT. Mutational resistance to 4-quinolone antibacterial agents. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1984; 3:347-50. [IDIS 223935] [PubMed 6237904]
120. Neu HC. Current mechanisms of resistance to antimicrobial agents in microorganisms causing infection in the patient at risk for infection. Am J Med. 1984; :11-27.
121. Crumplin GC, Odell M. Development of resistance to ofloxacin. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):1-8. [IDIS 245943] [PubMed 3325254]
122. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC, Shih DJ et al. Isolation and characterization of an Escherichia coli strain exhibiting partial tolerance to quinolones. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:705-9. [PubMed 2665642]
123. Ubukata K, Itoh-Yamashita N, Konno M. Cloning and expression of the norA gene for fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1535-9. [PubMed 2817852]
125. Wiedemann B, Zuhlsdorf MT. Brief report: resistance development to fluoroquinolones in Europe. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 5A):9-11S.
126. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Bacterial resistance to the quinolone antimicrobial agents. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):17-23S.
127. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. Bacterial resistance to quinolones: mechanisms and clinical importance. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s960-66.
128. Abb J. Resistance to fluoroquinolones in Campylobacter pylori. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):s1379.
129. Yoshida H, Bogaki M, Nakamura S et al. Nucleotide sequence and characterization of the Staphylococcus aureus norA gene, which confers resistance to quinolones. J Bacteriol. 1990; 172:6942-9. [PubMed 2174864]
133. Trucksis M, Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Emerging resistance to fluoroquinolones in staphylococci: an alert. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 114:424-6. [IDIS 278526] [PubMed 1992885]
134. Kaatz GW, Seo SM, Ruble CA. Mechanisms of fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis. 1991; 163:1080-6. [PubMed 1850442]
135. Rutanarugsa A, Vorachit M, Polnikorn N et al. Drug resistance of Haemophilus ducreyi. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990; 21:185-93. [PubMed 2237585]
136. Dechene M, Leying H, Cullmann W. Role of the outer membrane for quinolone resistance in enterobacteria. Chemotherapy. 1990; 36:13-23. [IDIS 262715] [PubMed 2106416]
137. Masecar BL, Robillard NJ. Spontaneous quinolone resistance in Serratia marcescens due to a mutation in gyrA. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:898-902. [IDIS 281922] [PubMed 1649573]
138. Hoshino K, Sato K, Akahane K et al. Significance of the methyl group on the oxazine ring of ofloxacin derivatives in the inhibition of bacterial and mammalian type II topoisomerases. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:309-12. [IDIS 278271] [PubMed 1850968]
139. Munno I, Arpinelli F, Benedetti M et al. The effect of ofloxacin on the immune system of elderly patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 25:455-8. [PubMed 2110939]
141. Rajagopalan-Levasseur P, Dournon E, Dameron G et al. Comparative postantibacterial activities of pefloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin against intracellular multiplication of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:1733-8. [PubMed 2285286]
142. Gonzales-Perdomo M, Lisboa de Castro S, Mierelles MN et al. Typanosoma cruzi proliferation and differentiation are blocked by topoisomerase II inhibitors. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:1707-14. [IDIS 271436] [PubMed 2178335]
143. Gupta K, Hooton TM, Naber KG et al. International clinical practice guidelines for the treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis and pyelonephritis in women: A 2010 update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the European Society for Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Clin Infect Dis. 2011; 52:e103-20. [PubMed 21292654]
144. Pascual A, Garcia I, Perea EJ. Uptake and intracellular activity of an optically active ofloxacin isomer in human neutrophils and tissue culture cells. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:277-80. [PubMed 2327777]
146. Minguez F, Gomez-Luz ML, Muro A et al. Comparative study of the postantibiotic effect of cefotaxime, amoxicillin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S955-7.
147. Sato K, Hoshino K, Une T et al. Inhibitory effects of ofloxacin on DNA gyrase of Escherichia coli and topoisomerase II of bovine calf thymus. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S915-6.
148. Nishino T, Tanaka M, Ohtsuki M. Effect of ofloxacin on the ultrastructure of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the logarithmic and stationary phases of growth. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S914-5.
149. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Mode of action of the quinolone antimicrobial agents: review of recent information. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S902-20.
150. Pascual A, Martinez-Martinez L, Perea EJ. Effect of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte activity against staphylococci. Chemotherapy. 1989; 35:17-22. [IDIS 252443] [PubMed 2721289]
151. Fitzgeorge RB, Featherstone AS, Baskerville A. The effect of ofloxacin on the intracellular growth of Legionella pneumophila in guinea pig alveolar phagocytes. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):53-7. [PubMed 3182462]
152. Lewin CS, Smith JT. Bactericidal mechanisms of ofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):1-8. [PubMed 3053574]
153. Fernandes PB. Mode of action, and in vitro and in vivo activities of the fluoroquinolones. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 28:156-68. [IDIS 241559] [PubMed 3283179]
155. Roche Y, Gougerot-Pocidalo MA, Fay M et al. Comparative effects of quinolones on human mononuclear leucocyte functions. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987; 19:781-90. [PubMed 3497150]
157. Forsgren A, Schlossman SF, Tedder TF. 4-Quinolone drugs affect cell cycle progression and function of human lymphocytes in vitro. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:768-73. [PubMed 3606076]
158. Imamura M, Shibamura S, Hayakawa I et al. Inhibition of DNA gyrase by optically active ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:325-7. [PubMed 3032098]
161. Smith JT. The mode of action of 4-quinolones and possible mechanisms of resistance. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1986; 18(Suppl D):21-9. [PubMed 3542946]
163. Smith JT. Wirkmechanismus der chinolone. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 1):S3-15.
164. Hussy P, Maass G, Tummler B et al. Effect of 4-quinolones and novobiocin on calf thymus DNA polymerase α primase complex, topoisomerases I and II, and growth of mammalian lymphoblasts. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:1073-8. [PubMed 3015015]
165. Zweerink MM, Edison A. Inhibition of Micrococcus luteus DNA gyrase by norfloxacin and 10 other quinolone carboxylic acids. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:598-601. [IDIS 215018] [PubMed 3010848]
166. Forsgren A, Bergh AK, Brandt M et al. Quinolones affect thymidine incorporation into the DNA of human lymphocytes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1986; 29:506-8. [PubMed 3717944]
167. Forsgren A, Bergkvist PI. Effect of ciprofloxacin on phagocytosis. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1985; 4:575-8. [PubMed 2936604]
169. Lode H, Hoffken G, Prinzing C et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of new quinolones. Drugs. 1987; 32(Suppl 1):21-5.
170. Meyer H. Ofloxacin in cystic fibrosis. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):177-9. [IDIS 245973] [PubMed 3481319]
171. Verho M, Malerczyk V, Dagrosa E et al. Dose linearity and other pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin: a new, broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Pharmatherapeutica. 1985; 4:376-82. [PubMed 3866256]
172. Verho M, Malerczyk V, Dagrosa E et al. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin. Curr Med Res Opin. 1986; 10:166-171. [PubMed 3460737]
173. Verbist L. Quinolones: pharmacology. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:22-5. [IDIS 214000] [PubMed 3008075]
174. Vree TV, Wijnands WJ, Guelen PJ et al. Pharmacokinetics: metabolism and renal excretion of quinolones in man. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:29-34. [IDIS 214002] [PubMed 3960691]
175. Lode H, Hoffken G, Olschewski P et al. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin after parenteral and oral administration. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:1338-42. [IDIS 236950] [PubMed 3479046]
176. Leroy A, Borsa F, Humbert G et al. The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in healthy adult male volunteers. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 31:629-30. [IDIS 226016] [PubMed 3470180]
177. Jensen T, Pedersen SS, Nielsen CH et al. The efficacy and safety of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987; 20:585-94. [PubMed 3479420]
178. Malerczyk V, Verho M, Korn A et al. Relative bioavailability of ofloxacin tablets in comparison to oral solution. Curr Med Res Opin. 1987; 10:514-9. [PubMed 3479296]
179. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Performance standards for antimicrobial susceptibility testing: Twenty-first informational supplement. CLSI document M100-S21. Wayne, PA; 2011.
181. Nix DE, Schentag JJ. The quinolones: an overview and comparative appraisal of their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 28:169-78. [IDIS 241560] [PubMed 3283180]
182. Neuman M. Clinical pharmacokinetics of the newer antibacterial 4-quinolones. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1988; 14:96-121. [IDIS 240310] [PubMed 3282749]
183. Wise R, Lockley MR. The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and a review of its tissue penetration. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):59-64. [PubMed 3182463]
184. Passadakis P, Oreopoulos D. The case for oral treatment of peritonitis in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Adv Perit Dial. 2001; 17:180-90. [PubMed 11510271]
185. Leigh DA, Walsh B, Harris K et al. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and the effect on the faecal flora of healthy volunteers. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):115-25. [PubMed 3182453]
186. Bedeschi G, Beltrame M, Baldin C et al. Pharmacokinetics of a new oral antibacterial agent, ofloxacin, in dentistry and oral surgery. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther Toxicol. 1988; 26:162-4. [PubMed 3165967]
187. Rademaker CM, Jones RW, Notarianni LJ et al. Pharmacokinetics of a single dose of ofloxacin in healthy elderly subjects using noncompartmental and compartmental models. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1989; 11:224-8. [IDIS 262612] [PubMed 2616254]
188. Lode H, Hoffken G, Borner K et al. Unique aspects of quinolone pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1989; 16(Suppl 1):1-4. [IDIS 253936] [PubMed 2653691]
189. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):31S-36S. [IDIS 262519] [PubMed 2690617]
190. Flor S. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):24S-30S. [IDIS 262518] [PubMed 2603892]
191. Outman WR, Nightingale CH. Metabolism and the fluoroquinolones. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):37S-42S. [IDIS 262520] [PubMed 2690618]
192. Warlich R, Korting HC, Schafer Korting M et al. Multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in serum, saliva, and skin blister fluid of healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:78-81. [IDIS 262121] [PubMed 2327762]
193. Mazzulli T, Simor AE, Jaeger R et al. Comparative in vitro activities of several new fluoroquinolones and β-lactam antimicrobial agents against community isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:467-9. [IDIS 263859] [PubMed 2334158]
194. Yuk JH, Nightingale CH, Quintiliani R et al. Bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in healthy volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:384-6. [IDIS 278278] [PubMed 2024973]
195. Davies BI, Maesen FP, Geraedts WH et al. Penetration of ofloxacin from blood to sputum. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):26-32. [IDIS 245947] [PubMed 3481324]
196. Symonds J, Bone M, Turner A et al. Penetration of ofloxacin into bronchial secretions. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):33-6. [IDIS 245948] [PubMed 3481325]
197. Kazmierczak A, Pechinot A, Duez JM et al. Biliary tract excretion of ofloxacin in man. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):39-43. [IDIS 245950] [PubMed 3481327]
198. Naber KG, Adam D, Kees F. In vitro activity and concentrations in serum, urine, prostatic secretion and adenoma tissue of ofloxacin in urological patients. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):44-50. [IDIS 245951] [PubMed 3481328]
199. Anders CU, Hofeler H, Schmidt CG. Concentration of the quinolone ofloxacin in the cerebrospinal fluid. Am J Med. 1987; 83:1006. [IDIS 235823] [PubMed 3479021]
200. Tartaglione TA, Johnson CR, Brust P et al. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of ofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in vaginal fluid of women treated for acute cystitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1640-3. [IDIS 247629] [PubMed 3075434]
201. Brattstrom C, Malmborg AS, Tyden G. Penetration of ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin into human allograft pancreatic juice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22:213-9. [PubMed 3053553]
202. Flor S, Madsen PO, Tack K et al. Prostatic tissue and fluid levels of ofloxacin following oral administration of 300 mg tablets. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988; 43:123. [IDIS 238729] [PubMed 3338233]
203. Drancourt M, Gallais H, Raoult D et al. Ofloxacin penetration into cerobrospinal fluid. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22:263-5. [PubMed 3182421]
204. Van Landuyt HW, Gordts B, D’Hondt G. Pharmacokinetic evaluation of ofloxacin in serum and tonsils. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):81-3.
205. Wijnands WJ, Vree TB, Baars AM et al. The penetration of ofloxacin into lung tissue. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):85-9. [PubMed 3182467]
206. Symonds J, Javaid A, Bone M et al. The penetration of ofloxacin into bronchial secretions. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):91-5. [PubMed 3182469]
207. Pioget JC, Wolff M, Singlas E et al. Diffusion of ofloxacin into cerebrospinal fluid of patients with purulent meningitis or ventriculitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:933-6. [IDIS 255723] [PubMed 2764544]
208. Bitar N, Claes R, Van der Auwera P. Concentrations of ofloxacin in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients without meningitis receiving the drug intravenously and orally. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1686-90. [IDIS 271599] [PubMed 2589841]
209. Giamarellou H, Kolokythas E, Petrikkos G et al. Pharmacokinetics of three newer quinolones in pregnant and lactating women. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 5A):49S-51S. [IDIS 261955] [PubMed 2589384]
210. Sorgel F, Jaehde U, Naber K et al. Pharmacokinetic disposition of quinolones in human body fluids and tissues. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1989; 16(Suppl 1):5-24. [IDIS 253937] [PubMed 2653696]
211. Okezaki E, Terasaki T, Nakamura M et al. Serum protein binding of lomefloxacin, a new antimicrobial agent, and its related quinolones. J Pharm Sci. 1989; 78:504-7. [IDIS 255802] [PubMed 2760827]
212. Silvain C, Bouquet S, Breux JP et al. Oral pharmacokinetics and ascitic fluid penetration of ofloxacin in cirrhosis. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989; 37:261-5. [IDIS 260025] [PubMed 2612541]
213. Muth P, Marx T, Sorgel F. Penetration of ofloxacin into maternal milk. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1079-80. [IDIS 307980] [PubMed 2549606]
214. Gerding DN, Hitt JA. Tissue penetration of the new quinolones in humans. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1046-56. [IDIS 307976] [PubMed 2672243]
215. Bron A, Talon D, Estavoyer JM et al. Ocular distribution of the new quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1206-7.
216. Pharmacia. Maxaquin (lomefloxacin hydrochloride) prescribing information. Chicago, IL; 2002 Jul.
217. Pederzoli P, Falconi M, Bassi C et al. Ofloxacin penetration into bile and pancreatic juice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989; 23:805-7. [PubMed 2759927]
219. Serour F, Dan M, Gorea A et al. Penetration of ofloxacin into human lung tissue following a single oral dose of 200 milligrams. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:380-1. [IDIS 278276] [PubMed 2024972]
220. Hoffler D, Koeppe P. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in healthy subjects and patients with impaired renal function. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):51-5. [IDIS 245952] [PubMed 3125032]
221. White LO, MacGowan AP, Lovering AM et al. A preliminary report on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin, desmethyl ofloxacin and ofloxacin N-oxide in patients with chronic renal failure. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):56-61. [IDIS 245953] [PubMed 3481329]
222. Dorfler A, Schultz W, Burkhardt F et al. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in patients on haemodialysis treatment. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):62-70. [IDIS 245954] [PubMed 3481330]
223. Fillastre JP, Leroy A, Humbert G. Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in renal failure. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:156-60. [IDIS 226538] [PubMed 3471179]
224. White LO, MacGowan AP, Mackay IG et al. The pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin, desmethyl ofloxacin and ofloxacin N-oxide in haemodialysis patients with end stage renal failure. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):65-72. [PubMed 3182464]
225. Tsubakihara Y, Itoh T, Kitamura E et al. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin in patients with severe chronic renal failure. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1006-7.
226. Navarro AS, Lanao JM, Recio MM et al. Effect of renal impairment on distribution of ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:455-9. [IDIS 263858] [PubMed 2334157]
227. Janknegt R. Pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in organ function impairment: a review. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1990; 12:121-7. [IDIS 272849] [PubMed 2277757]
228. Couraud L, Fourtillan JB, Saux MC et al. Diffusion of ofloxacin into human lung tissue. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):37-8. [IDIS 245949] [PubMed 3481326]
229. Harazim H, Wimmer J, Mittermayer HP. An open randomised comparison of ofloxacin and doxycycline in lower respiratory tract infections. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):71-3. [IDIS 245955] [PubMed 3481331]
230. Grassi C, Gialdroni Grassi G, Mangiarotti P. Clinical efficacy of ofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections: a multicenter study. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):80-2. [IDIS 245957] [PubMed 3325260]
232. Saito A, Katsu M, Saito A et al. Ofloxacin in respiratory tract infection: a review of the results of clinical trials in Japan. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):83-9. [IDIS 245958] [PubMed 3325261]
233. Ketterl R, Beckurts T, Stubinger B et al. Ofloxacin treatment in the management of chronic osteitis. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):124-30. [IDIS 245965] [PubMed 3481313]
234. Lenarz T. Chemotherapy of otitis media with ofloxacin. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):139-43. [IDIS 245968] [PubMed 3481314]
236. Hanninen P. Ofloxacin in lower respiratory tract infections. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):179-80. [IDIS 245974] [PubMed 3481320]
237. Hoiby N. Clinical uses of nalidixic acid analogues: the fluoroquinolones. Eur J Clin Microbiol. 1986; 5:138-40. [IDIS 223868] [PubMed 3013628]
238. Maesen FP, Davies BI. Branhamella catarrhalis respiratory infections in the Netherlands. Drugs. 1986; 31(Suppl 3):83-6. [IDIS 217403] [PubMed 3732084]
239. Davies BI, Maesen FP, Teengs JP et al. The quinolones in chronic bronchitis. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:53-9. [IDIS 214007] [PubMed 3960693]
240. Van Klingeren B. Place of quinolones in the therapeutic armoury. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:40-1. [IDIS 214004] [PubMed 3960692]
241. Mouton RP. The place of quinolones in antibacterial therapy in hospitals. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:72-8. [IDIS 214011] [PubMed 3960694]
242. Neu HC. New antibiotics: areas of appropriate use. J Infect Dis. 1987; 155:403-17. [IDIS 227193] [PubMed 3543153]
243. Neu HC. Clinical use of the quinolones. Lancet. 1987; 2:1319-22. [IDIS 236850] [PubMed 2890913]
244. Jitta NM, Sumajow A. Effect of oral ofloxacin on acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Curr Ther Res. 1987; 42:39-43.
246. Gantz NM. Quinolones: their uses in geriatric infections. Geriatrics. 1988; 43:41-7. [IDIS 237980] [PubMed 3335336]
249. Foucaud P, Bingen E, Lambert-Zechovsky N et al. Intensive outpatient antibiotic treatment in cystic fibrosis (CF): interest in ofloxacine. Scand J Gastroent. 1988; 23:172.
250. Chan MK, Chau PY, Chan WW. Oral treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients with two dosage regimens of ofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22:371-5. [PubMed 3182430]
251. Moorhouse EC, Clarke PC. Efficacy of ofloxacin in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections in general practice. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):135-8. [PubMed 3182455]
252. Ketterl R, Beckurts T, Stubinger B et al. Use of ofloxacin in open fractures and in the treatment of post-traumatic osteomyelitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):159-66. [PubMed 3053576]
253. Stocks JM, Wallace RJ, Griffith DE et al. Ofloxacin in community-acquired lower respiratory infections: a comparison with amoxicillin or erythromycin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):52S-56S. [IDIS 262522] [PubMed 2690620]
255. Gentry LO, Rodriguez-Gomez G, Zeluff BJ et al. A comparative evaluation of oral ofloxacin versus intravenous cefotaxime therapy for serious skin and skin structure infections. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):57-60S. [IDIS 262523] [PubMed 2472743]
256. Combination of ofloxacin and amikacin in the treatment of sternotomy wound infection. Chest. 1989; 95:1051-5. (IDIS 255399)
258. Levy R, Shpitzer T, Shvero J et al. Oral ofloxacin as treatment of malignant external otitis: a study of 17 cases. Laryngoscope. 1990; 100:548-51. [PubMed 2109817]
259. Thys JP, Jacobs F, Motte S. Quinolones in the treatment of lower respiratory tract infections. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1212-9. [IDIS 307985] [PubMed 2672250]
260. Chan MK, Chau PY, Chan WW et al. Randomized controlled trial of oral ofloxacin vs. intraperitoneal tobramycin for the treatment of patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1292.
261. Nord CE. Surgical prophylaxis and treatment of surgical infections with quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1287-91. [PubMed 2672255]
262. Peyramond D, Biron F, Tigaud S et al. Treatment of bacterial osteomyelitis with ofloxacin. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1269-70.
263. Ketterl R, Beckurts T, Stubinger B et al. Ofloxacin for prevention of and therapy for bone and joint infections. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1264-5.
264. Grenier B. Use of the new quinolones in cystic fibrosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1245-51. [IDIS 307987] [PubMed 2672252]
265. Lam WK, Chau PY, So SY et al. Ofloxacin compared with amoxycillin in treating infective exacerbations in bronchiectasis. Resp Med. 1989; 83:299-303.
266. Chan MK, Chau PY, CHan WW. Oral treatment of peritonitis in CAPD patients with ofloxacin. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1988; 2:194-7.
267. Chan MK, Chan PC, Cheng IP et al. Pseudomonas peritonitis in CAPD patients: characteristics and outcome of treatment. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1989; 4:814-7. [PubMed 2516614]
268. Meek JC, Maesen FP, Davies BI. A prospective study of ofloxacin in acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory disease associated with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989; 24:447-53. [PubMed 2808196]
269. Yoshikawa TT. Antimicrobial therapy for the elderly patient. JAGS. 1990; 38:1353-72.
270. Guay DR. Oral fluoroquinolone versus mono- or combination parenteral therapy in the management of bacterial infections: a critical appraisal. DICP. 1990; 24:11-8. [IDIS 262805] [PubMed 2405585]
271. Kanellakopoulou K, Giamarellou H. Clinical experience with parenteral and oral ofloxacin in severe infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68:64-9.
272. Ball P. Overview of experience with ofloxacin in respiratory tract infection. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68:56-63.
273. Lode H, Wiley E, Olschewski P et al. Prospective randomized clinical trials of new quinolones versus β-lactam antibiotics in lower respiratory tract infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68:50-5.
274. Punakivi L, Keistinen T, Backman R et al. Oral ofloxacin once daily and doxycycline in the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68:41-5.
275. Kromann-Andersen B, Nielsen KK. Ofloxacin in urinary tract infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68:35-40.
277. Block MJ, Walstad RA, Bjertnaes A et al. Ofloxacin versus trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole in acute cystitis. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):100-6. [IDIS 245961] [PubMed 3501750]
278. Ludwig G, Pauthner H. Clinical experience with ofloxacin in upper and lower urinary tract infections: a comparison with co-trimoxazole and nitrofurantoin. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):95-9. [IDIS 245960] [PubMed 3501751]
279. Rugendorff EW. Open randomised comparison of ofloxacin and norfloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):91-4. [IDIS 245959] [PubMed 3481333]
280. Raz R, Genesin J, Gonen E et al. Single low-dose ofloxacin for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection in young women. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22:945-9. [PubMed 3243742]
281. Kromann-Andersen B, Sommer P, Pers C et al. Ofloxacin compared with ciprofloxacin in the treatment of complicated lower urinary tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):143-7. [PubMed 3182457]
282. Hooton TM, Latham RH, Wong ES et al. Ofloxacin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for treatment of acute cystitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1308-12. [IDIS 260549] [PubMed 2802557]
283. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Treatment of genitourinary tract infections with fluoroquinolones: clinical efficacy in genital infections and adverse effects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1662-7. [IDIS 271597] [PubMed 2686546]
284. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. Treatment of genitourinary tract infections with fluoroquinolones: activity in vitro, pharmacokinetics, and clinical efficacy in urinary tract infections and prostatitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1655-61. [IDIS 271596] [PubMed 2686545]
285. Cox CE. Ofloxacin in the management of complicated urinary tract infections, including prostatitis. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):61S-8S. [IDIS 262524] [PubMed 2690622]
286. Naber KG. Use of quinolones in urinary tract infections and prostatitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1321-32. [IDIS 307992] [PubMed 2672257]
287. Ekwere PD. Ofloxacin and genitourinary infections: an open noncomparative evaluation. Curr Ther Res. 1991; 49:99-105.
288. Corrado ML. Worldwide clinical experience with ofloxacin in urologic cases. Urology. 1991; 37(Suppl):28-32. [PubMed 2003342]
289. Aznar J, Prados R, Herrera A et al. Single doses of ofloxacin in uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):107-10. [IDIS 245962] [PubMed 3325255]
290. Black JR, Long JM, Zwickl BE et al. Multicenter randomized study of single-dose ofloxacin versus amoxicillin-probenecid for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:167-70. [IDIS 251555] [PubMed 2719459]
291. Abeyemi-Doro FA, Rotowa NA, Bakare RA et al. Clinical evaluation of ofloxacin as single-dose therapy for uncomplicated gonococcal urethritis in men. Curr Ther Res. 1989; 46:303-7.
292. American Academy of Pediatrics. Red Book: 2012 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 29th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2012.
293. Wendel GD, Cox SM, Theriot SK et al. Ofloxacin in the treatment of acute salpingitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1314-5.
294. Black JR, Handsfield HH, Hook EW. Single-dose ofloxacin vs. amoxicillin plus probenecid for treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1313-4. [IDIS 273584] [PubMed 2682964]
295. Verhoest P, Fenandex H, Boulanger JC et al. Use of ofloxacin plus amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for the treatment of acute genital tract infections. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1307.
296. Covino JM, Cummings M, Smith B et al. Comparison of ofloxacin and ceftriaxone in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by penicillinse-producing and non-penicillinase-producing strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:148-9. [IDIS 262123] [PubMed 2109573]
297. Weidner W, Schiefer HG, Garbe CH et al. Acute nongonococcal epididymitis: aetiological and therapeutic aspects. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):111-7. [IDIS 245963] [PubMed 3481311]
298. Noguchi M, Okamoto T, Itoh N et al. Chlamydia trachomatis infection in female patients. Curr Ther Res. 1988; 44:461-7.
299. Nayagam AT, Ridgway GL, Oriel JD. Efficacy of ofloxacin in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis in men and genital infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis in men and women. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):155-8. [PubMed 3182459]
300. Richmond SJ, Bhattacharyya MN, Maiti H et al. The efficacy of ofloxacin against infection caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):149-53. [PubMed 3182458]
301. Batteiger BE, Jones RB, White A. Efficacy and safety of ofloxacin in the treatment of nongonococcal sexually transmitted disease. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):75-7S.
302. Argenziano G. Ofloxacin, a new quinolone derivative, in the treatment of Chlamydia trachomatis and Staphylococcus aureus urethritis. Curr Ther Res. 1989; 46:993-1001.
303. Pocidalo JJ. Use of fluoroquinolones for intracellular pathogens. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S979-84. [PubMed 2672263]
304. Tack KJ, Callery SV, Smith JA et al. Ofloxacin in the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1282-3.
305. . Advice for travelers. Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2012; 10:45-56. [PubMed 22777212]
307. Stein GE, Saravolatz LD. Randomized clinical study of ofloxacin and doxycycline in the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis and cervicitis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1277. [PubMed 2772464]
308. Oriel JD. Use of quinolones in chlamydial infection. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1273-6. [IDIS 307989] [PubMed 2672254]
309. Mogabgab WJ, Homes B, Murray M et al. Randomized comparison of ofloxacin and doxycycline for Chlamydia and Ureaplasma urethritis and cervicitis. Chemotherapy. 1990; 36:70-6. [IDIS 262717] [PubMed 2307026]
310. Lipsky BA, Tack KJ, Kuo CC et al. Ofloxacin treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae (strain TWAR) lower respiratory tract infections. Am J Med. 1990; 89:722-4. [IDIS 275902] [PubMed 2252040]
311. Moller MR, Hermann B, Ibsen HH et al. Occurrence of Ureaplasma urealyticus and Mycoplasma hominis in non-gonococcal urethritis before and after treatment in a double-blind trial of ofloxacin versus erythromycin. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68(Suppl):31-4.
312. Mardh PA, Lowing C. Treatment of chlamydial infections. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68(Suppl):23-30.
313. Hartlapp JH. Antimicrobial prophylaxis in immunocompromised patients. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):131-3. [IDIS 245966] [PubMed 3325256]
314. Maiche AG. Oral ofloxacin for prophylaxis in neutropenia or treatment of infection caused by multiresistant bacteria in patients with cancer. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1240.
315. Liang RH, Yung RW, Chan TK et al. Ofloxacin versus co-trimoxazole for prevention of infection in neutropenic patients following cytotoxic chemotherapy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:215-8. [IDIS 262909] [PubMed 2327768]
316. Winston DJ, Ho WG, Bruckner DA et al. Ofloxacin versus vancomycin/polymyxin for prevention of infections in granulocytopenic patients. Am J Med. 1990; 88:356-42.
317. Yew WW, Kwan SY, Ma WK et al. Ofloxacin therapy of Mycobacterium fortuitum infection: further experience. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 25:880-1. [PubMed 2373673]
318. Wang F, Gu XJ, Zhang MF et al. Treatment of typhoid fever with ofloxacin. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1192.
319. Workowski KA, Berman S, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2010. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2010; 59(RR-12):1-110.
320. Asperilla MO, Smego RA, Scott LK. Quinolone antibiotics in the treatment of Salmonella infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1990; 12:873-89.
321. Hoogkamp-Korstanje JA. The possible role of quinolones in yersiniosis. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):134-8. [IDIS 245967] [PubMed 3436262]
322. Loffler A, Grafvon Westphalen H. Successful treatment of chronic salmonella excretor with ofloxacin. Lancet. 1986; 1:1206. [IDIS 216488] [PubMed 2871436]
323. Glupczynski Y, Labbe M, Burette A et al. Treatment failure of ofloxacin in Campylobacter pylori infection. Lancet. 1987; 1:1096. [IDIS 229945] [PubMed 2883434]
324. Leelarasamee A, Bovornkitti S. Meliodosis: review and update. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11:413-25. [IDIS 255062] [PubMed 2665001]
325. Raffi F. Q-fever endocarditis. Lancet. 1989; 2:1336-7. [IDIS 261344] [PubMed 2574284]
326. Lecour H, Ferreira I, Cordeiro J et al. Ofloxacin in the treatment of booutonneuse fever. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S994-5.
327. Fontaine O. Antibiotics in the management of shigellosis in children: what role for the quinolones? Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1145-50.
328. . Drugs for sexually transmitted infections. Treat Guidel Med Lett. 2010; 8:53-60; quiz 1p following 60. [PubMed 20585282]
329. Rodriguez-Noriega E, Andrade-Villanueva J, Amaya-Tapia G. Quinolones in the treatment of salmonella carriers. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1179-86. [IDIS 307983] [PubMed 2672248]
330. Akalin HE, Firat M, Unal S et al. Clinical efficacy of single-dose or one-day treatment with ofloxacin in shigellosis. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1152-3.
331. Wang F, Gu XJ, Zhang MF et al. Treatment of typhoid fever with ofloxacin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989; 23:785-8. [PubMed 2759925]
332. Ichiyama S, Tsukamura M. Ofloxacin and the treatment of pulmonary disease due to Mycobacterium fortuitum. Chest. 1987; 92:1110-2. [IDIS 239210] [PubMed 3479304]
333. Yew WW, Kwan SY, Ma WK et al. Single daily-dose ofloxacin monotherapy for Mycobacterium fortuitum sternotomy infection. Chest. 1989; 96:1150-2. [IDIS 305617] [PubMed 2805845]
335. Davey PG. Post-marketing surveillance of the quinolones: a view from Great Britain. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1402-7. [IDIS 307996] [PubMed 2672260]
336. Forsgren A, Bredberg A, Riesbeck K. New quinolones: in vitro effects as a potential source of clinical toxicity. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1382-9. [IDIS 307995] [PubMed 2549607]
337. Ball P. Long-term use of quinolones and their safety. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1365-9. [IDIS 307993] [PubMed 2672258]
339. Davis GJ, McKenzie ME. Toxicologic evaluation of ofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):43S-46S. [PubMed 2690619]
340. Tack KJ, Smith JA. The safety profile of ofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):78S-81S. [IDIS 262527] [PubMed 2690623]
341. Jungst G, Mohr R. Overview of postmarketing experience with ofloxacin in Germany. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):167-75. [PubMed 3053577]
342. Mayer DG. Overview of toxicological studies. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):150-3. [PubMed 3325258]
343. Jungst G, Mohr R. Side effects of ofloxacin in clinical trials and in postmarketing surveillance. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):144-9. [IDIS 245969] [PubMed 3325257]
344. Giamarellou H, Tsagarakis J. Efficacy and tolerance of oral ofloxacin in treating various infections. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):119-23. [IDIS 245964] [PubMed 3481312]
345. Midtvedt T. Influence of ofloxacin on the faecal flora. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):154-8. [IDIS 245970] [PubMed 3481316]
346. Saxerholt H, Carlstedt-Duke B, Hoverstad T et al. Influence of antibiotics on the faecal excretion of bile pigments in healthy subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21:991-6. [IDIS 2288943] [PubMed 3775264]
347. Takayama S, Watanabe T, Akiyama Y et al. Reproductive toxicity of ofloxacin. Arzneimittelforschung. 1986; 36:1244-8. [PubMed 3465327]
348. Hoverstad T, Carlstedt-Duke B, Lingaas E et al. Influence of oral intake of seven different antibiotics on faecal short-chain fatty acid excretion in healthy subjects. Scand J Gastroenterol. 1986; 21:997-1003. [IDIS 228944] [PubMed 3775265]
349. Pecquet S, Andremont A, Tancrede C. Effect of oral ofloxacin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:124-5. [IDIS 224830] [PubMed 3471178]
350. Shah PM, Enzensberger R, Glogau O et al. Influence of oral ciprofloxacin or ofloxacin on the fecal flora of healthy volunteers. Am J Med. 1987; 82(Suppl 4A):333-5. [IDIS 230550] [PubMed 3101497]
351. Van Saene HK, Lemmens SE, Van Saene JJ. Gut decontamination by oral ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in healthy volunteers. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):127-34. [PubMed 3182454]
352. Dan M, Samra Z. Clostridium difficile colitis associated with ofloxacin therapy. Am J Med. 1989; 87:479. [IDIS 260301] [PubMed 2801739]
353. Chew SL, Daelemans R, Lins RL. Ciprofloxacin and pseudomembranous colitis. Lancet. 1990; 336:1509-10. [IDIS 275375] [PubMed 1979116]
354. Brismar BO, Edlund C, Malmborg AS et al. Ecological impact of antimicrobial prophylaxis on intestinal microflora in patients undergoing colorectal surgery. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 70(Suppl):25-30.
355. Midtvedt T. The influence of quinolones on the faecal flora. Scand J Infect Dis. 1990; 68(Suppl):14-8.
356. Verho M, Dagrosa EE, Usinger P et al. Renal tolerance of ofloxacin, a new gyrase inhibitor. Pharmatherapeutica. 1985; 4:306-13. [PubMed 2866542]
357. Mitelman F, Kolnig AM, Strombeck B et al. No cytogenetic effects of quinolone treatment in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:936-7. [IDIS 244251] [PubMed 3166361]
359. Kato M, Onodera T. Morphological investigation of cavity formation in articular cartilage induced by ofloxacin in rats. Fund Appl Toxicol. 1988; 11:110-9.
360. Pace JL, Gatt P. Fatal vasculitis associated with ofloxacin. BMJ. 1989; 299:658-9. [IDIS 258795] [PubMed 2508853]
361. Bergan T, Rohwedder R, Thorsteinsson SB. Significance of crystalluria caused by quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1395-6.
362. Johnson BE, Walker EM, Ferguson J. Quinolone-induced photosensitivity. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1396-7.
363. Zaudig M, von Bose M, Weber MM et al. Psychotoxic effects of ofloxacin. Pharmacopsychiat. 1989; 22:11-5.
364. Zaudig M, von Bose M. Ofloxacin-induced psychosis. Br J Psychiat. 1987; 151:563-4.
365. Edwards DJ, Bowles SK, Svensson CK et al. Inhibition of drug metabolism by quinolone antibiotics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1988; 15:194-204. [IDIS 246145] [PubMed 3052987]
366. Davey PG. Overview of drug interactions with the quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 2(Suppl C):97-107.
367. Polk RE. Drug-drug interactions with ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 5A):76S-81S. [IDIS 261962] [PubMed 2686430]
368. Wijnands GJ, Vree TB, Janssen TJ et al. Drug-drug interactions affecting fluoroquinolones. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):47S-51S. [IDIS 262521] [PubMed 2603893]
369. McQueen CA, Williams GM. Effects of quinolone antibiotics in tests for genotoxicity. Am J Med. 1987; 82(Suppl 4A):94-6.
370. Kern W, Gulden H, Vanek E et al. In vitro antibacterial activity of imipenem in combination with newer quinolone derivatives. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:117-26. [IDIS 240889] [PubMed 3164670]
371. Traub WH, Spohr M, Bauer D. Pseudomonas aeruginosa: in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobial drugs, single and combined, with and without defibrinated human blood. Chemotherapy. 1988; 34:284-97. [IDIS 244795] [PubMed 3145172]
372. Rohner P, Herter C, Auckenthaler R et al. Synergistic effect of quinolones and oxacillin on methacillin-resistant Staphylococcus species. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:2037-41. [IDIS 261689] [PubMed 2619272]
373. Lewin CS, Smith JT. Interactions of the 4-quinolones with other antibacterials. J Med Microbiol. 1989; 29:221-7. [PubMed 2664184]
374. Neu HC. Synergy of fluoroquinolones with other antimicrobial agents. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1025-34. [IDIS 307975] [PubMed 2505355]
375. Madhavan T, Price J, Fitzsimons B et al. In vitro evaluation of the antimicrobial effect of norfloxacin and ofloxacin in combination with aminoglycosides. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 5):S1041-2.
377. Hoffner SE, Kratz M, Olsson-Liljequist B et al. In-vitro synergistic activity between ethambutol and fluorinated quinolones against Mycobacterium avium complex. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1989; 24:317-24. [PubMed 2808189]
378. Wijnands WJ, Vree TB, Baars AM et al. Steady-state kinetics of the quinolone derivatives ofloxacin, enoxacin, ciprofloxacin and pefloxacin during maintenance treatment with theophylline. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):159-69. [IDIS 245971] [PubMed 3481317]
379. Wijnands WJ, Bree TB, Van Herwaarden CL. The influence of quinolone derivatives on theophylline clearance. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1986; 22:677-83. [IDIS 224271] [PubMed 3567014]
380. Gregoire SL, Grasela TH, Freer JP et al. Inhibition of theophylline clearance by coadministered ofloxacin without alteration of theophylline effects. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:375-8. [IDIS 227070] [PubMed 3472488]
381. Sano M, Yamamoto I, Ueda J et al. Comparative pharmacokinetics of theophylline following two fluoroquinolones co-administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 32:431-2. [IDIS 231924] [PubMed 3475207]
382. Thomson AH, Thomson GD, Hepburn M et al. A clinically significant interaction between ciprofloxacin and theophylline. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 33:435-6. [IDIS 236943] [PubMed 3443151]
383. Raoof S, Wollschlager C, Khan FA. Ciprofloxacin increases serum levels of theophylline. Am J Med. 1987; 82(Suppl 4A):115-8. [IDIS 230503] [PubMed 3578320]
384. Niki Y, Soejima R, Kawane H et al. New synthetic quinolone antibacterial agents and serum concentration of theophylline. Chest. 1987; 92:663-9. [IDIS 234880] [PubMed 3477409]
385. Rybak MJ, Bowles SK, Chandrasekar PH et al. Increased theophylline concentrations secondary to ciprofloxacin. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1987; 21:879-81. [IDIS 235121] [PubMed 3678060]
386. Wijnands GJ, Vree TB, Van Herwaarden CL. Comment: potential theophylline toxicity with enoxacin. Drug Intell Clin Pharm. 1987; 21:383. [IDIS 228583] [PubMed 3471434]
387. Schwartz J, Jauregui L, Lettieri J et al. Impact of ciprofloxacin on theophylline clearance and steady-state concentrations in serum. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:75-7. [IDIS 243874] [PubMed 3348614]
388. Segev S, Rhavi M, Rubinstein E. Quinolones, theophylline, and diclofenac interactions with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1988; 32:1624-6. [PubMed 2855295]
389. Ho G, Tierney MG, Dales RE. Evaluation of the effect of norfloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988; 44:35-8. [IDIS 244338] [PubMed 3391003]
390. Al-Turk WA, Shaheen OM, Othman S et al. Effect of ofloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of a single intravenous theophylline dose. Ther Drug Monit. 1988; 10:160-3. [IDIS 240517] [PubMed 3164150]
391. Bem JL, Mann RD. Danger of interaction between ciprofloxacin and theophylline. BMJ. 1988; 296:1131. [IDIS 240625] [PubMed 3132238]
392. Sano M, Kawakatsu K, Ohkita C et al. Effects of enoxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin on theophylline disposition in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 35:161-5. [IDIS 246698] [PubMed 3191935]
393. Wijands WJ, Janssen TJ, Guelen PJ et al. The influence of ofloxacin and enoxacin on the metabolic pathways of theophylline in healthy volunteers. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1988; 10:272-6. [IDIS 250748] [PubMed 3211700]
394. Wijnands WJ, Vree TB. Interaction between the fluoroquinolones and the bronchodilator theophylline. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1988; 22(Suppl C):109-14. [PubMed 3053575]
395. Sano M, Kawakatsu K, Yamamoto I et al. Inhibitory effect of enoxacin, ofloxacin and norfloxacin on renal excretion of theophylline in humans. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1989; 36:323-4. [IDIS 254489] [PubMed 2744074]
396. Sarkar M, Polk RE, Guzelian PS et al. In vitro effect of fluoroquinolones on theophylline metabolism in human liver microsomes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:594-9. [PubMed 2344166]
397. Parent M, LeBel M. Meta-analysis of quinolone-theophylline interactions. DICP. 1991; 25:191-4. [IDIS 278331] [PubMed 1647570]
398. Staib AH, Stille W, Dietlein G et al. Interaction between quinolones and caffeine. Drugs. 1987; 34(Suppl 1):170-4. [IDIS 245972] [PubMed 3481318]
399. Staib AH, Harder S, Mieke S et al. Gyrase-inhibitors impair caffeine elimination in man. Meth Find Exptl Clin Pharmacol. 1987; 9:193-8.
400. Harder S, Staib AH, Beer C et al. 4-Quinolones inhibit biotransformation of caffeine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 35:651-6. [IDIS 249016] [PubMed 2853056]
401. Harder S, Fuhr U, Staib AH. Ciprofloxacin-caffeine: a drug interaction established using in vivo and in vitro investigations. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 5A):89S-91S. [IDIS 261965] [PubMed 2589393]
402. Barnett G, Segura J, de la Torre R et al. Pharmacokinetic determination of relative potency of quinolone inhibition of caffeine disposition. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1990; 39:63-9. [IDIS 270092] [PubMed 2177401]
403. Leor J, Matetzki S. Ofloxacin and warfarin. Ann Intern Med. 1988; 109:761. [IDIS 248249] [PubMed 3190063]
404. Flor S, Guay DR, Opsahl JA et al. Effects of magnesium-aluminum hydroxide and calcium carbonate antacids on bioavailability of ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1900; 34:2436-8.
405. Maesen FP, Davies BI, Geraedts WH et al. Ofloxacin and antacids. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987; 19:848-50. [PubMed 3475268]
406. Bayerdorffer E, Simon TH, Bastlein CH et al. Bismuth/ofloxacin combination for duodenal ulcer. Lancet. 1987; 2:1467.
407. Van Caekenberghe DL, Breyssens J. In vitro synergistic activity between bismuth subcitrate and various antimicrobial agents against Campylobacter pyloridis (C. pylori). Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:1429-30. [IDIS 236956] [PubMed 3674850]
409. Halliwell RF, Lambert JJ, Davey PG. Actions of quinolones and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs on γ-aminobutyric acid currents of rat dorsal root ganglion neurons. Rev Infect Dis. 1989; 11(Suppl 1):S1398-9. [IDIS 307996] [PubMed 2672260]
410. Koppel C, Hopfe T, Menzel J. Central anticholinergic syndrome after ofloxacin overdose and therapeutic doses of diphenhydramine and chlormezanone. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1990; 28:249-53. [IDIS 272236] [PubMed 2398523]
411. Akahane K, Sekiguchi M, Une T et al. Structure-epileptogenicity relationship of quinolones with special reference to their interaction with γ-aminobutyric acid receptor sites. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:1704-8. [PubMed 2556076]
412. Panel on Opportunistic Infections in HIV-infected Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: recommendations from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (May 7, 2013). Updates may be available at HHS AIDS Information (AIDSinfo) website.
413. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents. N Engl J Med. 1991; 324:384-94. [IDIS 277079] [PubMed 1987461]
414. Smythe MA, Rybak MJ. Ofloxacin: a review. DICP. 1989; 23:839-46. [IDIS 260674] [PubMed 2688325]
415. Jaber LA, Bailey EM, Rybak MJ. Enoxacin: a new fluoroquinolone. Clin Pharm. 1989; 8:97-107. [IDIS 250240] [PubMed 2645085]
416. Henwood JM, Monk JP. Enoxacin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs. 1988; 36:32-66. [IDIS 249347] [PubMed 3063494]
417. Paton JH, Reeves DS. Fluoroquinolone antibiotics: microbiology, pharmacokinetics and clinical uses. Drugs. 1988; 36:193-228. [IDIS 245416] [PubMed 3053126]
418. Andersen RC, Goldstein EJ. The introduction of the quinolones: a new class of anti-infectives. Hosp Formul. 1987; 22:36-47.
419. Walker RC, Wright AJ. The quinolones. Mayo Clin Proc. 1987; 62:1007-12. [IDIS 236179] [PubMed 3312850]
420. Monk JP, Campoli-Richards DM. Ofloxacin: a review of its antibacterial activity, pharmacokinetic properties and therapeutic use. Drugs. 1987; 33:346-91. [IDIS 236762] [PubMed 3297617]
421. Janknegt R. Fluorinated quinolones: a review of their mode of action, antimicrobial activity, pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy. Pharm Weekbl [Sci]. 1986; 8:1-21. [IDIS 213999] [PubMed 3515312]
423. Basista MP. Randomized study to evaluate efficacy and safety of ofloxacin vs. trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infection. Urology. 1991; 37:21-7. [PubMed 2003341]
424. Aagaard J, Madsen PO. Bacterial prostatitis: new methods of treatment. Urology. 1991; 37:4-8. [PubMed 2003343]
425. Cox CE. Parenteral ofloxacin in treatment of pyelonephritis. Urology. 1991; 37:16-20. [PubMed 2003340]
426. VanLanduyt HW, Magerman K, Gordts B. The importance of the quinolones in antibacterial therapy. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):1-6. [PubMed 2286584]
427. Janknegt R. Drug interactions with quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):7-25. [PubMed 2286594]
428. Stahlmann R. Safety profile of the quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):31-44. [PubMed 2286589]
429. Lang R, Lishner M, Segev S et al. Ofloxacin and the gastrointestinal tract: a potential role in the treatment of bacterial enteritis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):45-53. [PubMed 2286590]
430. Perea EJ. Ofloxacin concentrations in tissues involved in respiratory tract infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):55-60. [PubMed 2286591]
431. Kampf D, Borner K, Pustelnik A. Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and adequacy of maintenance dose for patients on haemodialysis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):61-8. [PubMed 2286592]
432. Meissner A, Borner K, Koeppe P. Concentrations of ofloxacin in human bone and in cartilage. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):69-74. [PubMed 2286593]
433. Rademaker CM, Sips AP, Beumer HM et al. A double-blind comparison of low-dose ofloxacin and amoxycillin/clavulanic acid in acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):75-81. [PubMed 2286595]
434. Ge B, White DG, McDermott PF et al. Antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter species from retain raw meats. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:3005-7.
435. Unseld E, Ziegler G, Gemeinhardt A et al. Possible interaction of fluoroquinolones with the benzodiazepine-GABAa-receptor complex. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990; 30:63-70. [IDIS 269285] [PubMed 2167717]
436. Kitchen VS, Donegan C, Ward H et al. Comparison of ofloxacin with doxycycline in the treatment of non-gonococcal urethritis and cervical chlamydial infection. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):99-105. [PubMed 2286598]
437. Mouton Y, Leroy O, Beuscart C et al. Efficacy of intravenous ofloxacin: a French multicentre trial in 185 patients. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):115-20. [PubMed 2286586]
438. Regamey C, Steinbach-Lebbin C. Severe infection treated with intravenous ofloxacin: a prospective clinical multicentre Swiss study. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):107-14. [PubMed 2286585]
439. Granger W, Presterl E, Walzl B et al. Intravenous ofloxacin in severe infections. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):123-35. [PubMed 2286587]
440. Arning M, Wolf H, Aul C et al. Infection prophylaxis in neutropenic patients with acute leukaemia: a randomized, comparative study with ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole/colistin. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26(Suppl D):137-42. [PubMed 2286588]
441. Crumplin GC. Aspects of chemistry in the development of the 4-quinolone antibacterial agents. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S2-9. [IDIS 311592] [PubMed 3279494]
442. Bryskier A, Chantoto JF, Veyssier P. Classification of structure-activity relation of new pyridone β-carboxylic derivatives. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S10.
443. Hooper DC, Wolfson JS. Mode of action of the quinolone antimicrobial agents. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S14-20. [IDIS 311593] [PubMed 2831608]
444. Inoue Y, Sato K, Fujii T et al. Resistance mechanism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa against quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S22.
445. Neu HC. Bacterial resistance to fluoroquinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S57-63. [IDIS 311595] [PubMed 3279500]
446. Christ W, Lehnert T, Ulbrich B. Specific toxicologic aspects of the quinolones. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S141-6. [IDIS 311600] [PubMed 3279489]
447. Boslego JW, Hicks CB, Greenup R et al. A prospective randomized trial of ofloxacin vs. doxycycline in the treatment of uncomplicated male urethritis. Sex Transm Dis. 1987; 5:186-91.
448. Rajakumar MK, Ngeow YF, Khor BS et al. Ofloxacin, a new quinolone for the treatment of gonorrhea. Sex Transm Dis. 1988; 16:25-6.
449. Ibsen HH, Moller BR, Halkier-Sorensen L et al. Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: comparison of ofloxacin and erythromycin. Sex Transm Dis. 1988; 16:32-5.
450. Perea EJ, Aznar J, Herrera A et al. Clinical efficacy of new quinolones for therapy of nongonococcal urethritis. Sex Transm Dis. 1988; 16:7-10.
451. Lewin CS, Allen RA, Amyes SG. Antibacterial activity of fluoroquinolones in combination with zidovudine. J Med Microbiol. 1990; 33:127-31. [PubMed 2121991]
452. Linville D, Emory C, Graves L. Ciprofloxacin and warfarin interaction. Am J Med. 1991; 90:765. [IDIS 284024] [PubMed 2042696]
453. Berger SA, Yavetz H, Paz G et al. Concentration of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in human semen following a single oral dose. J Urol. 1990; 144:683-4. [IDIS 288006] [PubMed 2388328]
454. Stille W, Harder S, Mieke S et al. Decrease of caffeine elimination in man during co-administration of 4-quinolones. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1987; 20:729-34. [PubMed 3480885]
455. Ikeda S, Yazawa M, Nishimura C. Antiviral activity and inhibition of topoisomerase by ofloxacin, a new quinolone derivative. Antiviral Res. 1987; 8:103-13. [PubMed 2827566]
456. Alegre J, Fernandex de Sevilla T, Falco V et al. Ofloxacin in miliary tuberculosis. Eur Respir J. 1990; 3:238-9. [PubMed 2311746]
457. Saito A, Sawatari K, Fukuda Y et al. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to ofloxacin in vitro and in experimental Legionella pneumonia in guinea pigs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1985; 28:15-20. [PubMed 3862361]
458. Chan MK, Chau PY, Chan WW. Ofloxacin pharmacokinetics in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Clin Nephrol. 1987; 28:277-80. [PubMed 3481692]
459. Pattyn SR. Activity of ofloxacin and pefloxacin against Mycobacterium leprae in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:671-2. [PubMed 3475035]
460. Raoult D, Houpikian P, Dupont HT et al. Treatment of Q fever endocarditis: comparison of 2 regimens containing doxycycline and ofloxacin or hydrochloroquine. Arch Intern Med. 1999; 159:167-73. [IDIS 418047] [PubMed 9927100]
461. Guerrant RL, Gilder TV, Steiner TS et al. Practice guidelines for the management of infectious diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2001; 32:331-50. [IDIS 466024] [PubMed 11170940]
462. Lentino JR, Augustinsky JB, Weber TM et al. Therapy of serious skin and soft tissue infections with ofloxacin administered by intravenous and oral route. Chemotherapy. 1991; 37:70-6. [IDIS 278892] [PubMed 2013245]
464. Drew RH, Gallis HA. Ofloxacin: its pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and potential for clinical application. Pharmacotherapy. 1988; 8:35-46. [IDIS 389860] [PubMed 3287354]
466. Vincent S, Glauner B, Gutmann L. Lytic effect of two fluoroquinolones, ofloxacin and pefloxacin, on Escherichia coli W7 and its consequences on peptidoglycan composition. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:1381-5. [IDIS 284982] [PubMed 1929297]
467. Ridgway GL, O’Hare MD, Gelmingham D et al. The comparative activity of twelve 4-quinolone antimicrobials against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1985; 11:259-62. [PubMed 2941258]
468. Yew WW, Kwan SY, Keung Ma W et al. Minimal bactericidal and inhibitory concentrations of ofloxacin on Mycobacterium fortuitum at pH 7 and 5: therapeutic implications. Tubercle. 1990; 71:205-8. [PubMed 2238127]
469. Chiaradia V, Pascoli L, Mucignat G et al. Ofloxacin: in vitro activity against recently isolated gram-negative bacterial strains. J Chemother. 1989; 1:80-5. [PubMed 2543801]
470. Burgos A, Quindos G, Martinez R et al. In vitro susceptibility of Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila and Aeromonas sobria to fifteen antibacterial agents. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990; 9:413-7. [PubMed 2387294]
471. Lopez-Brea M, Alarcon T. Isolation of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae from an infected Hickman catheter. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1990; 9:345-7. [PubMed 2197092]
472. Weber P, Boussougant Y, Farinotti R et al. Serum bactericidal activity against Enterobacteriaceae producing broad-spectrum beta-lactamases in volunteers administered ofloxacin and cefotaxime, alone or combined. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1989; 8:524-6. [PubMed 2504593]
473. McNulty CA, Dent JC. Susceptibility of clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori to twenty-one antimicrobial agents. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988; 7:566-9. [PubMed 3141174]
474. Krausse R, Ullmann U. Comparative in vitro activity of fleroxacin (RO 23-6240) against Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988; 7:67-9. [PubMed 3132382]
475. Stubner G, Weinrich W, Brands U. Study of the cerebrospinal fluid penetrability of ofloxacin. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 4):S250-3. [PubMed 3469155]
476. Stahl JP, Croize J, Lefebvre A et al. Diffusion of ofloxacin into the cerebrospinal fluid in patients with bacterial meningitis. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 4):S254-5.
478. Hooton TM, Johnson C, Winter C et al. Single-dose and three-day regimens of ofloxacin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for acute cystitis in women. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:1479-83. [IDIS 284985] [PubMed 1929311]
479. Yew WW, Kwan SY, Wong PC et al. Ofloxacin and imipenem in the treatment of Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae lung infections. Tubercle. 1990. 71:131-3.
480. Kimura S, Toda H, Shimabukuro Y et al. Topical chemotherapy in human periodontitis using a new controlled-release insert containing ofloxacin: microbiological observations. J Periodont Res. 1991; 26:33-41. [PubMed 1825332]
481. Sabbour MS, Osman LM. Experience with ofloxacin in enteric fever. J Chemother. 1990; 2:113-5. [PubMed 2113941]
482. Bartoloni A, Fanci R, Orsi A et al. The influence of ofloxacin versus trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole on the aerobic flora in granulocytopenic subjects. J Chemother. 1989; 1:91-4. [PubMed 2732784]
483. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: investigation of bioterrorism-related anthrax and interim guidelines for exposure management and antimicrobial therapy, October 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001; 50:909-19. [IDIS 471910] [PubMed 11699843]
484. Bariffi F, Giacomelli P, Sanduzzi A et al. A comparative study of ofloxacin versus cefazolin in lower respiratory tract infections. Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1987; 7:199-201.
485. Bruck K, Blomer R. Efficacy and safety of ofloxacin in elderly patients. Int J Clin Pharm Res. 1987; 7:195-8.
486. Chan AS, Tang KC, Fung KK et al. Single dose ofloxacin in treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 4):S314-5. [PubMed 3546155]
487. Ariyarit C, Panikabutra K, Chitwarakorn C et al. Efficacy of ofloxacin in uncomplicated gonorrhoea. Infection. 14(Suppl 4):S311-3.
488. Judson FN, Beals BS, Tack KJ. Clinical Experience with ofloxacin in sexually transmitted disease. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 4):S309-10.
489. Oren B, Raz R, Hass H. Urinary mycobacterium fortuitum infection. Infection. 1990; 18:105-6. [PubMed 2332244]
490. Vogt P, Schorn T, Frei U. Ofloxacin in the treatment of urinary tract infection in renal transplant recipients. Infection. 1988; 16:175-7. [PubMed 3042627]
491. Dellamonica P, Bernard E, Etesse H et al. Evaluation of pefloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in the treatment of thirty-nine cases of chronic osteomyelitis. Eur J Clin Microbiol Dis. 1989; 8:1024-30.
492. Yousaf M, Sadick A. Ofloxacin in the treatment of typhoid fever unresponsive to chloramphenicol. Clin Ther. 1990; 12:44-7. [PubMed 2328527]
493. Blomer R, Bruch K, Krauss H et al. Safety of ofloxacin - adverse drug reactions reported during phase-II studies in Europe and in Japan. Infection. 1986; 14(Suppl 4):S332-3. [PubMed 2950061]
494. Edlund C, Kager L, Malmborg AS et al. Effect of ofloxacin on oral and gastrointestinal microflora in patients undergoing gastric surgery. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1988; 7:135-43. [PubMed 3134200]
495. Fostini R, Girelli M, Vedove D et al. Safety profile of ofloxacin in elderly patients. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1988; 14:393-5. [PubMed 3063474]
496. Nelson JD, Silverman V, Lima PH et al. Corneal epithelial wound healing: a tissue culture assay on the effect of antibiotics. Curr Eye Res. 1989; 9:277-85.
497. Yoshida H, Bogaki M, Nakamura M et al. Quinolone resistance-determining region in the DNA gyrase gyrB gene of Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:1647-50. [PubMed 1656869]
500. Smith BL, Cummings MC, Covino JM et al. Evaluation of ofloxacin in the treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea. Sex Trans Dis. 1991; 18:18-20.
501. GIMEMA Infection Program. Prevention of bacterial infection in neutropenic patients with hematologic malignancies: a randomized multicenter trial comparing norfloxacin with ciprofloxacin. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 115:7-12. [IDIS 282471] [PubMed 2048868]
502. Gentry LO. Oral antimicrobial therapy for osteomyelitis. Ann Intern Med. 1991; 114:986-7. [IDIS 281387] [PubMed 2024868]
503. Blomer R, Bruch K, Klose U. Ofloxacin in the treatment of gonococcal and chlamydial urethritis. Clin Ther. 1988; 10:263-5. [PubMed 2978862]
504. Felmingham D, O’Hare MD, Robbins MJ et al. Comparative in vitro studies with 4-quinolone antimicrobials. Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1985; 11:317-29. [PubMed 2941259]
505. Peters B, Pinching AJ. Fatal anaphylaxis associated with ciprofloxacin in a patient with AIDS related complex. BMJ. 1989; 298:605. [IDIS 251703] [PubMed 2495139]
506. Harnett N, Brown S, Krishnan C. Emergence of quinolone resistance among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Ontario, Canada. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 115:1911-3.
507. Ryzhko IV, Shcherbaniuk AT, Samokhodkina ED et al. Virulence of rifampicin and quinolone resistant mutants of strains of plague microbe with Fra+ and Fra- phenotypes. Antibiot Khimioter. 1994; 39:32-6. [PubMed 7826172]
508. Lindler LE, Fan W, Jahna N. Detection of ciprofloxacin-resistant Yersinia pestis by fluorogenic PCR using the lightcycler. J Clin Microbiol. 2001; 39:3649-55. [PubMed 11574586]
519. Peterson LR, Quick JN, Jensen B et al. Emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates: resistance during ciprofloxacin plus rifampin therapy for methicillin-resistant S. aureus colonization. Arch Intern Med. 1990; 150:2151-5. [IDIS 272486] [PubMed 2222100]
520. Blumberg HM, Rimland D, Carroll DJ et al. Rapid development of ciprofloxacin resistance in methicillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Infect Dis. 1991; 163:1279-85. [IDIS 283422] [PubMed 2037793]
521. Raviglione MC, Boyle JF, Mariuz P et al. Ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in an acute-care hospital. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:2050-4. [IDIS 273716] [PubMed 2073096]
522. Daum TE, Shaberg DR, Terpenning MS et al. Increasing resistance of Staphylococcus aureus to ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:1862-3. [IDIS 271447] [PubMed 2285306]
524. Rautelin H, Renkonen OV, Kosunen TU. Emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in subjects from Finland. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992; 35:2065-9.
525. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC health information for international travel, 2014. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services. Updates may be available at CDC website.
526. Morris JT, Beckius M, McAllister CK. Quinolones lack efficacy for treatment of trichomoniasis. J Infect Dis. 1991; 164:624-5. [IDIS 288699] [PubMed 1651363]
527. National Institutes of Health Office of Medical Applications of Research. Consensus conference: travelers’ diarrhea. JAMA. 1985; 253:2700-4. [PubMed 2985834]
529. Pavia AT, Tauxe RV. Travel to the Soviet Union: is diarrhea a risk? JAMA. 1987; 260:224-5.
530. Endtz HP, Ruijs GJ, van Klingeren B et al. Quinolone resistance in campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1991; 27:199-208. [PubMed 2055811]
531. Reina J, Alomar P. Fluoroquinolone-resistance in thermophilic Campylobacter spp isolated from stools of Spanish patients. Lancet. 1990; 336:186. [IDIS 268806] [PubMed 1973508]
532. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Additional options for preventive treatment for persons exposed to inhalational anthrax. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001; 50:1142.
533. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Use of anthrax vaccine in response to terrorism: supplemental recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51:1024-6. [IDIS 489786] [PubMed 12458919]
534. Yew WW, Lee J, Chan CY et al. Ofloxacin penetration in tuberculous pleural effusion. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:2159-60. [IDIS 288664] [PubMed 1759841]
535. Okazaki O, Kojima C, Hakusui H et al. Enantioselective disposition of ofloxacin in humans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:2106-9. [IDIS 288661] [PubMed 1759834]
536. Martinez-Cabarga M, Sanchez-Navarro A, Colino-Gandarillas CI et al. Effects of two cations on gastrointestinal absorption of ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:2102-5. [PubMed 1759833]
537. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on ciprofloxacin.
538. Trucksis M, Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. A novel locus conferring fluoroquinolone resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. J Bacteriol. 1991; 173:5854-60. [PubMed 1653224]
539. Reviewer’s comments (personal observations).
540. Goldstein EJ, Citron DM. Susceptibility of anaerobic bacteria isolated from intra-abdominal infections to ofloxacin and interaction of ofloxacin and metronidazole. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:2447-9. [IDIS 296006] [PubMed 1804024]
541. McNeil Pharmaceutical, Springhouse, PA: Personal communication.
542. Courvalin P. Plasmid-mediated 4-quinolone resistance: a real or apparent absence? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1990; 34:681-4.
543. Wolfson JS, Hooper DC. Comparative pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Am J Med. 1989; 87(Suppl 6C):31-6S.
544. Pequet S, Andremont A, Tancrède C. Effect of oral ofloxacin on fecal bacteria in human volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:124-5. [IDIS 224830] [PubMed 3471178]
545. Yew WW, Kwan SY, Ma WK et al. In-vitro activity of ofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its clinical efficacy in multiply resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26:227-36. [PubMed 2120177]
546. Khuri-Bulos N, Shaker K. Relapse of brucellosis following ofloxacin therapy. Infection. 1991; 22:302-3.
547. Healy DP, Polk RE, Kanawati L et al. Interaction between oral ciprofloxacin and caffeine in normal volunteers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989; 33:474-8. [IDIS 254009] [PubMed 2729942]
548. Harder S, Staib AH, Beer C et al. 4-Quinolones inhibit biotransformation of caffeine. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1988; 35:651-5. [IDIS 249016] [PubMed 2853056]
549. Carmargo EE, Sostre S, Sazdot B. Global and regional cerebral metabolic rate of 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose in the presence of ofloxacin, a gamma-aminobutyric acid A receptor antagonist. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:648-52. [IDIS 280553] [PubMed 1648886]
550. Kohler RB, Arkins N, Tack KJ. Accidental overdose of intravenous ofloxacin with benign outcome. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:1239-40. [IDIS 283450] [PubMed 1929271]
551. Lipsky BA, Yarbrough DY, Pecoraro E et al. Ofloxacin vs. cephalexin for treatment of skin and soft-tissue infections in adult outpatients. Rev Infect Dis. 1988; 10(Suppl 1):S131.
552. Forstall GJ, Knapp CC, Washington JA. Activity of new quinolones against ciprofloxacin-resistant staphylococci. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1991; 35:1679-81. [PubMed 1656873]
553. Blum A. Ofloxacin-induced acute severe hepatitis. South Med J. Letter.
554. Brookmeyer R, Johnson E, Bollinger R. Modeling the optimum duration of antibiotic prophylaxis in an anthrax outbreak. Proc Natl Acad Sci. 2003; 100:10129-32. [PubMed 12890865]
556. Lamp KC, Bailey EM, Rybak MJ. Ofloxacin clinical pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1992; 22:32-46. [PubMed 1559306]
557. DuPont HL, Ericsson CD, Mathewson JJ et al. Five versus three days of ofloxacin therapy for traveler’s diarrhea: a placebo-controlled study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992; 36:87-91. [IDIS 289787] [PubMed 1590705]
559. Zenilman JM, Neumann T, Patton M et al. Antibacterial activities of OPC-17116, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against 200 isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993; 37:2244-6. [IDIS 320622] [PubMed 8257153]
560. Raoult D. Treatment of Q fever. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993; 37:1733-6. [IDIS 319422] [PubMed 8239576]
561. Akova M, Uzun O, Akalin HE et al. Quinolones in the treatment of human brucellosis: comparative trial of ofloxacin-rifampin versus doxycycline-rifampin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993; 37:1831-4. [IDIS 319426] [PubMed 8239591]
562. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis -United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2006; 55(RR-4): 1-27.
563. Kohno S, Koga H, Kaku M et al. Prospective comparative study of ofloxacin or ethambutol for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. Chest. 1992; 102:1815-8. [IDIS 306284] [PubMed 1446494]
564. Edelstein PH. Legionnaires’ disease. Clin Infect Dis. 1993; 16:741-9. [IDIS 315623] [PubMed 8329504]
565. Yew WW, Wong CF, Wong PC et al. Adverse neurological reactions in patients with multidrug-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis after coadministration of cycloserine and ofloxacin. Clin Infect Dis. 1993; 17:289-90. [PubMed 8399889]
566. Anon. Choice of antibacterial drugs. Med Lett Treat Guid. 2004; 2:18-26.
568. Bebear C, Dupon M, Renaudin H et al. Potential improvements in therapeutic options for mycoplasmal respiratory infections. Clin Infect Dis. 1993; 17(Suppl 1):S202-7.
569. Kimura M, Kishimoto T, Niki Y et. In vitro and in vivo antichlamydial activities of newly developed quinolone antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993; 37:801-3. [PubMed 8494377]
570. Marshall BJ. Treatment strategies for Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1993; 22:183-98. [PubMed 8449566]
575. Huber-Spitzy VN, Czejka M, Georgiew L et al. Penetration of norfloxacin into the aqueous humor of the human eye. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1992; 33:1723-6. [PubMed 1559771]
578. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Decreased susceptibility of Neisseria gonorrhoeae to fluoroquinolone—Ohio and Hawaii, 1992–1994. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1994; 43:325-7. [IDIS 329259] [PubMed 8164636]
579. Clendennen TE, Echeverria P, Saengeur S et al. Antibiotic susceptibility survey of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Thailand. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1992; 36:1682-7. [IDIS 299819] [PubMed 1416851]
580. Tapsall JW, Schultz TR, Lovett R et al. Failure of 500 mg ciprofloxacin therapy in male urethral gonorrhoea. Med J Aust. 1992; 156:143. [PubMed 1736071]
581. Bogaerts J, Tello WM, Akingeneye J et al. Effectiveness of norfloxacin and ofloxacin for treatment of gonorrhoea and decrease of in vitro susceptibility to quinolones over time in Rwanda. Genitourin Med. 1993; 69:196-200. [PubMed 8335312]
582. Van der Willigen AH, van der Hoek JCS, Wagenvoort JHT et al. Comparative double-blind study of 200- and 400-mg enoxacin given orally in the treatment of acute uncomplicated urethra gonorrhea in males. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31:535-8. [IDIS 227909] [PubMed 3111354]
583. Turner A, Jephcott AE, Gough KR. Laboratory detection of ciprofloxacin resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. J Clin Pathol. 1991; 44:169-70. [PubMed 1907618]
584. Knapp JS, Ohye R, Neal SW et al. Emerging in vitro resistance to quinolones in penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains in Hawaii. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:2200-3. [IDIS 335752] [PubMed 7811047]
585. Knapp JS, Washington JA, Doyle LJ et al. Persistence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strains with decreased susceptibility to ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin in Cleveland, Ohio, from 1992 through 1993. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:2194-6. [IDIS 335751] [PubMed 7811045]
586. Bartlett JG. Antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 1992; 573-81.
587. Kelly CP, Pothoulakis C, LaMont JT. Clostridium difficile colitis. N Engl J Med. 1994; 330:257-62. [IDIS 324298] [PubMed 8043060]
588. DuPont HL, Ericsson CK. Prevention and treatment of traveler’s diarrhea. N Engl J Med. 1993; 328:1821-7. [IDIS 315863] [PubMed 8502272]
589. DuPont. Travellers’ diarrhoea: which antimicrobial? Drugs. 1993; 45:910-7.
590. Adachi JA, Ostrosky-Zeichner L, DuPont HL et al. Empirical antimicrobial therapy for travelers’ diarrhea. Clin Infect Dis. 2000; 31:1079-83. [IDIS 456005] [PubMed 11049792]
592. Lehto P, Kivistö KT. Effect of sucralfate on absorption of norfloxacin and ofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:248-51. [IDIS 326055] [PubMed 8192452]
593. Baciewicz Am, Ashar BH, Locke TW. Interaction of ofloxacin and warfarin. Ann Intern Med. 1993; 119:1223. [IDIS 322882] [PubMed 8239258]
595. Marshall BJ. Treatment strategies for Helicobacter pylori infection. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1993; 22:183-98. [PubMed 8449566]
596. Murray DM, DuPont HL, Cooperstock M et al. Evaluation of new anti-infective drugs for the treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease associated with infection by Helicobacter pylori. Clin Infect Dis. 1992; 15(Suppl 1):S268-73.
597. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations) on clarithromycin 8:12.12.
598. Marshall BJ. Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol. 1994; 89:S116-28.
599. Walsh JH, Peterson WL. The treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection in the management of peptic ulcer disease. N Engl J Med. 1995; 333:984-91. [IDIS 354448] [PubMed 7666920]
600. Graham DY, Borsch GM. The who’s and when’s of therapy for Helicobacter pylori. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990; 85:1552-5. [PubMed 2252013]
601. Soll AH. Medical treatment of peptic ulcer disease. JAMA. 1996; 275:622-9. [IDIS 361115] [PubMed 8594244]
602. Hackelsberger A, Malfertheiner P. A risk-benefit assessment of drugs used in the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Drug Saf. 1996; 15:30-52. [PubMed 8862962]
603. van der Hulst RWM, Keller JJ, Rauws EAJ et al. Treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection: a review of the world literature. Helicobacter. 1996; 1:138-44. [PubMed 9398894]
604. Lind T, Veldhuyzen van Zanten S, Unge P et al. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori using one-week triple therapies combining omeprazole with two antimicrobials: the MACH I study. Helicobacter. 1996; 1:138-44. [PubMed 9398894]
606. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Compendium of measures to control Chlamydia psittaci infection among humans (psittacosis) and pet birds (avian chlamydiosis), 1998. MMWR Recomm Rep. 1998; 47(RR-10):1-14.
607. Cohen SH, Gerding DN, Johnson S et al. Clinical practice guidelines for Clostridium difficile infection in adults: 2010 update by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010; 31:431-55. [PubMed 20307191]
609. Fekety R for the American College of Gastroenterology Practice Parameters Committee. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea and colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 1997; 92:739-50. [IDIS 386628] [PubMed 9149180]
610. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Commission on Therapeutics ASHP therapeutic position statement on the preferential use of metronidazole for the treatment of Clostridium difficile-associated disease. Am J Health-Syst Pharm. 1998; 55:1407-11.
612. Caeiro JP, DuPont HL. Management of travelers’ diarrhoea. Drugs. 1998; 56:73-81. [PubMed 9664200]
613. WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy. Seventh Report. WHO Technical Report Series No. 874. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998:1-43.
614. Whitty CJ, Lockwood DN. Leprosy—new perspectives on an old disease. J Infect. 1999; 38:2-5. [IDIS 424615] [PubMed 10090496]
615. Anon. Essential Drugs. WHO Model Formulary. Antibacterials. Antileprosy Drugs. WHO Drug Information. 1997; 11:253-7.
616. WHO Study Group on Chemotherapy of Leprosy. Seventh Report. WHO Technical Report Series No. 847. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994:1-24
617. WHO. Action Programme for the elimination of leprosy (LEP). From WHO Website () 1999 Sept 23.
618. WHO. Reports on individual drugs. Simplified treatment for leprosy. WHO Drug Information. 1997; 11:131.
619. Single-lesion multicentre trial group. Efficacy of single-dose multidrug therapy for the treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy. Indian J Leprosy. 1997; 69:121-9.
620. Inglesby TV, O’Toole T, Henderson DA et al for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002: updated recommendations for management. JAMA. 2002; 287:2236-52. [IDIS 480001] [PubMed 11980524]
621. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Update: investigation of anthrax associated with intentional exposure and interim public health guidelines, October 2001. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2001; 50:889-93. [IDIS 471389] [PubMed 11686472]
622. Doganay M, Aydin N. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus anthracis. Scand J Infect Dis. 1991; 23:333-5. [PubMed 1909051]
623. Syrjala H, Schildt R, Raisainen S. In vitro susceptibility of Francisella tularensis to fluoroquinolones and treatment of tularemia with norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 1991; 10:68-70. [PubMed 1864276]
624. Frean JA, Arntzen L, Capper T et al. In vitro activities of 14 antibiotics against 100 human isolates of Yersinia pestis from a southern African plague focus. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1996; 40:2646-7. [IDIS 376128] [PubMed 8913481]
625. Smith MD, Vinh DX, Nguyen TT et al. In vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of strains of Yersinia pestis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1995; 39:2153-4. [IDIS 353852] [PubMed 8540736]
626. Bonacorsi SP, Scavizzi MR, Guiyoule A et al. Assessment of a fluoroquinolone, three beta-lactams, two aminoglycosides, and a cycline in treatment of murine Yersinia pestis infection. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:481-6. [PubMed 8203841]
627. Byrne WR, Welkos SL, Pitt ML et al. Antibiotic treatment of experimental pneumonic plague in mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998; 42:675-81. [PubMed 9517950]
628. US Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Disease. USAMRIID’s medical management of biologic casualties handbook. 5th ed. USAMRIID: Fort Detrick, MD; 2004 Aug:32-8,D2.
629. Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA et al for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2000; 283:2281-90. [IDIS 446671] [PubMed 10807389]
630. Choe CH, Bouhaouala SS, Brook I et al. In vitro development of resistance to ofloxacin and doxycycline in Bacilluls anthracis Sterne. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000; 44:1766. [PubMed 10896651]
631. Cavallo JD, Ramisse F, Giradet M et al. Antibiotic susceptibilities of 96 isolates of Bacillus anthracis isolated in France between 1994 and 2000. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002; 46:2307-9. [PubMed 12069996]
632. Bearden DT, Danziger LH. Mechanism of action of and resistance to quinolones. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21:224S-32S. [IDIS 472236] [PubMed 11642689]
633. Hooper DC. Mode of action of fluoroquinolones. Drugs. 1999; 58(Supple 2):6-10. [PubMed 10553698]
634. Hooper DC. Quinolones. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R eds. Mandell, Douglas and Bennett’s principles and practice of infectious diseases. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:406-7.
635. Zhanel GG, Ennis K, Vercaigene L et al. A critical review of the fluoroquinolones: focus on respiratory tract infections. Drugs. 2002; 62:13-59. [PubMed 11790155]
636. Hooper DC. Mechanisms of action and resistance of older and newer fluoroquinolones. Clin Infect Dis. 2000; 31(Supple 2):S24-8. [IDIS 454408] [PubMed 10984324]
637. Benner GE, Andrews GP, Byrne WR et al. Immune response to Yersinia outer proteins and other Yersinia pestis antigens after experimental plague infection in mice. Infect Immun. 1999; 67:1922-1928. [PubMed 10085037]
638. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Treatment of tuberculosis, American Thoracic Society, CDC, and Infectious Diseases Society of American. MMWR Recomm Rep. 2003; 52(RR-11):1-88.
639. Mandell LA, Wunderink RG, Anzueto A et al. Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society consensus guidelines on the management of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Clin Infect Dis. 2007; 44 Suppl 2:S27-72. [PubMed 17278083]
641. Bishai W. Current issues on resistance, treatment guidelines, and the appropriate use of fluoroquinolones for respiratory tract infections. Clin Ther. 2002; 24:838-50. [IDIS 483635] [PubMed 12117077]
642. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increases in fluoroquinolone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae among men who have sex with men—United States, 2003, and revised recommendations for gonorrhea treatment, 2004. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2004; 53:3235-8.
643. Bosques-Padilla FJ, Garza-Gonzalex E, Calderon-Lozano IE et al. Open, randomized multicenter comparative trial of rabeprazole, ofloxacin and amoxicillin therapy for helicobacter pylori eradication: 7 vs. 14 day treatment. Helicobacter. 2004; 9:417-21. [PubMed 15361080]
644. Huang TS, Kunin CM, Lee SS et al. Trends in fluoroquinolone resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in Taiwanese medical centre: 1995-2003. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005; 56:1058-62. [PubMed 16204341]
645. World Health Organization. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB): recommendations for prevention and control. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2006; 45:430-2.
646. Gandhi NR, Moll A, Sturm AW et al. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis as a cause of death in patients co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV in a rural area of South Africa. Lancet. 2006; 368:1575-80. [PubMed 17084757]
647. Chiang CY, Enarson DA, Yu MC et al. Outcome of pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: a 6-yr follow-up study. Eur Respir J. 2006; 28:980-5. [PubMed 16837502]
648. Shi R, Zhang J, Li C et al. Emergence of ofloxacin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from China as determined by gyrA mutation analysis using denaturing high-pressure liquid chromatography and DNA sequencing. J Clin Microbiol. 2006; 44:4566-8. [PubMed 17035499]
649. Dudley MN, Marchbanks CR, Flor SC et al. The effect of food or milk on the absorption kinetics of ofloxacin. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1991; 41:569-71. [PubMed 1815968]
650. Neuvonen PJ, Kivisto KT. Milk and yoghurt do not impair the absorption of ofloxacin. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1992; 33:346-8. [PubMed 1576061]
651. Mueller BA, Brierton DG, Abel SR et al. Effect of enteral feeding with ensure on oral bioavailabilities of ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1994; 38:2101-5. [PubMed 7811026]
652. Granich RM, Oh P, Lewis B et al. Multidrug resistance among persons with tuberculosis in California, 1994-2003. JAMA. 2005; 293:2732-9. [PubMed 15941802]
653. Johnson JL, Hadad DJ, Boom WH et al. Early and extended early bactericidal activity of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006; 10:605-12. [PubMed 16776446]
654. Aubry A, Veziris N, Cambau E et al. Novel gyrase mutations in quinolone-resistant and -hypersusceptible clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: functional analysis of mutant enzymes. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50:104-12. [PubMed 16377674]
655. Yew WW, Chan CK, Leung CC et al. Comparative roles of levofloxacin and ofloxacin in the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Chest. 2003; 124:1476-81. [PubMed 14555582]
656. Marra F, Marra CA, Moadebi S et al. Levofloxacin treatment of active tuberculosis and the risk of adverse events. Chest. 2005; 128:1406-13. [PubMed 16162736]
657. Ziganshina LE, Vizel AA, Squire SB. Fluoroquinolones for treating tuberculosis. Cocrane Database Syst Rev. 2005; Jul 20:CD004795.
658. El-Sadr WM, Perlman DC, Matts JP et al. Evaluation of an intensive intermittent-induction regimen and duration of short-course treatment for human immunodeficiency virus-related pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 1998; 26:1148-58.
659. McDonald LC, Killgore GE, Thompson A et al. An epidemic, toxin gene-variant strain of Clostridium difficile. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353:2433-41. [PubMed 16322603]
660. Loo VG, Poirier L, Miller MA et al. A predominantly clonal multi-institutional outbreak of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea with high morbidity and mortality. N Engl J Med. 2005; 353:2442-9. [PubMed 16322602]
661. McDonald LC, Owings M, Jernigan DB. Clostridium difficile infection in patients discharged from US short-stay hospitals, 1996-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:409-15. [PubMed 16704777]
662. Bartlett JG, Peri TM. The new Clostridium difficile–what does it mean? N Engl J Med. 2005; 353:2503-5.
663. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Severe Clostridium difficile-associated disease in populations previously at low risk–four states, 2005. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005; 54:1201-5. [PubMed 16319813]
664. Kazakova SV, Ware K, Baughman B et al. A hospital outbreak of diarrhea due to an emerging epidemic strains of Clostridium difficile. Arch Intern Med. 2006; 166:2518-24. [PubMed 17159019]
665. Dhalla IA, Mamdani MM, Simor AE et al. Are broad-spectrum fluoroquinolones more likely to cause Clostridium difficile-associated disease? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006; 50:3216-9.
666. Shitrit D, Baum GL, Priess R et al. Pulmonary Mycobacterium kansasii infection in Israel, 1999-2004: clinical features, drug susceptibility, and outcome. Chest. 2006; 129:771-6. [PubMed 16537880]
667. Ruiz-Serrano MJ, Alcala L, Martinez L et al. In vitro activities of six fluoroquinolones against 250 clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis susceptible or resistant to first-line antituberculosis drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000; 44:2567-8.
668. Kam KM, Yip CW, Cheung TL et al. Stepwise decrease in moxifloxacin susceptibility amongst clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis: correlation with ofloxacin susceptibility. Microb Drug Resist. 2006; 12:7-11. [PubMed 16584301]
669. Shandil RK, Jayaram R, Kaur P et al. Moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: evaluation of in vitro and pharmacodynamic indices that best predict in vivo efficacy. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51:576-82. [PubMed 17145798]
670. Hori S, Kizu J, Kawamura M. Effects of anti-inflammatory drugs on convulsant activity of quinolones: a comparative study of drug interactions between quinolones and anti-inflammatory drugs. J Infect Chemother. 2003; 9:314-20. [PubMed 14691652]
671. . Update to CDC's sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, 2006: fluoroquinolones no longer recommended for treatment of gonococcal infections. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007; 56:332-6. [PubMed 17431378]
673. Douglas JM Jr. Dear colleague letter: Fluoroquinolones are no longer recommended for the treatment of gonorrhea in the United States. Division of STD Prevention, National Center for HIV/AIDS, Viral Hepatitis, STD and TB Prevention, Department of Health & Human Services; 2007 April 12.
674. Griffith DE, Aksamit T, Brown-Elliott BA et al. An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007; 175:367-416. [PubMed 17277290]
675. Food and Drug Administration. FDA news. FDA requests boxed warnings on fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs. 2008 Jul 8. From FDA website.
676. Food and Drug Administration. Information for healthcare professionals: Fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drugs. 2008 Jul 8. From FDA website.
678. Maggiolo F, Caprioli S, Suter F. Risk/benefit analysis of quinolone use in children: the effect on diarthrodial joints. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1990; 26:469-71. [PubMed 2254219]
679. Pfister K, Mazur D, Vormann J et al. Diminished ciprofloxacin-induced chondrotoxicity by supplementation with magnesium and vitamin E in immature rats. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2007; 51:1022-7. [PubMed 17210779]
680. Ortho-McNeil Pharmaceutical. Floxacin (norfloxacin) prescribing information. Raritan, NJ; 2008 Oct.
More about ofloxacin
- Other brands: Floxin