Video: Latest Treatment for Hep C.

Minocycline Hydrochloride

Pronunciation

Class: Tetracyclines
VA Class: AM250
CAS Number: 13614-98-7
Brands: Dynacin, Minocin, Myrac

Introduction

Antibacterial; semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic.100 105 116

Uses for Minocycline Hydrochloride

Respiratory Tract Infections

Treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.c 116

Treatment of respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Klebsiella.c 116 Should only be used for treatment of infections caused by these bacteria when in vitro susceptibility tests indicate the organism is susceptible.a c 116

Acinetobacter Infections

Alternative to imipenem or meropenem for treatment of infections caused by Acinetobacter.c 116 f

Acne

Adjunctive treatment of moderate to severe inflammatory acne.c 116 Not indicated for treatment of noninflammatory acne.a

Actinomycosis

Treatment of actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii;c 116 oral tetracyclines (usually doxycycline or tetracycline) used as follow-up after initial parenteral penicillin G.i

Amebiasis

Adjunct to amebicides for treatment of acute intestinal amebiasis.c 116 Tetracyclines not included in current recommendations for treatment of amebiasis caused by Entamoeba.i

Anthrax

Alternative to doxycycline for postexposure prophylaxis to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following a suspected or confirmed exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores (inhalational anthrax).g Initial drug of choice for such prophylaxis is ciprofloxacin or doxycycline;g doxycycline is the preferred tetracycline because of ease of administration and proven efficacy in monkey studies.g

Alternative to doxycycline for treatment of inhalational anthrax when a parenteral regimen is not available (e.g., supply or logistic problems because large numbers of individuals require treatment in a mass casualty setting).c 116 g A multiple-drug parenteral regimen (ciprofloxacin or doxycycline and 1 or 2 other anti-infectives predicted to be effective) is preferred for treatment of inhalational anthrax that occurs as the result of exposure to anthrax spores in the context of biologic warfare or bioterrorism.g

Bartonella Infections

Treatment of bartonellosis caused by Bartonella bacilliformis.c 116

Brucellosis

Treatment of brucellosis;c 116 tetracyclines (usually doxycycline or tetracycline) considered drugs of choice.f i Tetracyclines used in conjunction with other anti-infectives (e.g., streptomycin or gentamicin and/or rifampin),c 116 i especially for severe infections or when there are complications (e.g., endocarditis, meningitis, osteomyelitis).i

Campylobacter Infections

Treatment of infections caused by Campylobacter.c 116 Tetracyclines (usually doxycycline) are alternatives,i not drugs of choice for C. jejuni.f i

Slideshow: Flashback: FDA Drug Approvals 2013

Chancroid

Treatment of chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.c 116 Not included in CDC recommendations for treatment of chancroid.101

Chlamydial Infections

Treatment of uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.c 116 Doxycycline is the preferred tetracycline for treatment of these infections, including presumptive treatment of chlamydial infections in patients with gonorrhea.101

Treatment of trachoma and inclusion conjunctivitis caused by C. trachomatis.c 116 Consider that anti-infectives may not eliminate C. trachomatis in all cases of chronic trachoma.c 116

Treatment of lymphogranuloma venereum (genital, inguinal, or anorectal infections) caused by C. trachomatis.c 116 Doxycycline is the preferred tetracycline for these infections.101

Treatment of psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by C. psittaci.c 116 Doxycycline and tetracycline are drugs of choice.a i For initial treatment of severely ill patients, use IV doxycycline.a

Clostridium Infections

Alternative for treatment of infections caused by Clostridium.c 116 Tetracyclines are alternatives to metronidazole or penicillin G for adjunctive treatment of C. tetani infections.f

Enterobacteriaceae Infections

Treatment of infections caused by susceptible Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella, or Shigella.c 116 Should only be used for treatment of infections caused by these common gram-negative bacteria when other appropriate anti-infectives are contraindicated or ineffectivea and when in vitro susceptibility tests indicate the organism is susceptible.a c 116

Fusobacterium Infections

Alternative to penicillin G for treatment of infections caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme (Vincent’s infection).c 116

Gonorrhea and Associated Infections

Alternative for treatment of uncomplicated gonorrhea (including urethritis) caused by susceptible Neisseria gonorrhoeae.c 116 Tetracyclines are considered inadequate therapy and are not recommended by CDC for treatment of gonorrhea.101 a

Granuloma Inguinale (Donovanosis)

Treatment of granuloma inguinale (donovanosis) caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.c 116 Doxycycline is the tetracycline recommended as drug of choice by CDC.101

Listeria Infections

Alternative for treatment of listeriosis caused by Listeria monocytogenes.c 116 Not usually considered a drug of choice or alternative for these infections.f i

Malaria

Other tetracyclines (doxycycline) used for prevention of malaria; data insufficient to evaluate efficacy of minocycline for malaria prevention.117 CDC recommends that individuals receiving long-term minocycline therapy (e.g., for acne) who also require doxycycline malaria prophylaxis should discontinue minocycline 1–2 days prior to travel and initiate doxycycline for such prophylaxis;117 minocycline can be reinitiated after doxycycline malaria prophylaxis is finished.117

Mycobacterial Infections

Alternative for use in multiple-drug regimens for treatment of multibacillary leprosy.104 107 108 109 110 WHO recommends minocycline as an alternative for multibacillary leprosy regimens in patients who will not accept or cannot tolerate clofazimine104 110 and when rifampin cannot be used because of adverse effects, intercurrent disease (e.g., chronic hepatitis), or infection with rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium leprae.104 110

Component of a single-dose rifampin-based multiple-drug regimen (ROM) for treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy (i.e., a single skin lesion with definite loss of sensation but without nerve trunk involvement).104 107 108 109 110 A ROM regimen of a single dose of rifampin, single dose of ofloxacin, and single dose of minocycline is recommended by WHO as an acceptable and cost-effective alternative regimen in antileprosy programs that have detected a large number of patients (e.g., more than 1000 annually) with single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy.104 107 108 109 110

Treatment of cutaneous infections caused by M. marinum;115 c 116 f a drug of choice.115 f

Neisseria meningitidis Infections

Elimination of nasopharyngeal carriage of Neisseria meningitidis.c 116 CDC and AAP recommend use of rifampin, ceftriaxone, or ciprofloxacin for such carriers and no longer recommend use of minocycline.102 103 i

Should not be used for treatment of infections caused by N. meningitidis.c 116

Nocardiosis

Tetracyclines are alternative to co-trimoxazole for treatment of nocardiosis caused by Nocardia.f

Nongonococcal Urethritis

Treatment of nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum, C. trachomatis, or Mycoplasma.c 116 Doxycycline usually is the tetracycline of choice for NGU.101

Consider that some cases of recurrent urethritis following treatment may be caused by tetracycline-resistant U. urealyticum.101

Plague

Treatment of plague caused by Yersinia pestis.c 116 Regimen of choice is streptomycin or gentamicin;f i l alternatives are doxycycline, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, or chloramphenicol.i l

Relapsing Fever

Treatment of relapsing fever caused by Borrelia recurrentis.c 116 Tetracyclines are drugs of choice.f

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.111 112 113 One of several disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) that can be used when DMARD therapy is appropriate.111

Rickettsial Infections

Treatment of rickettsial infections including Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.c 116 Doxycycline is the drug of choice for most rickettsial infections.a i f m

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Infections

Treatment of infections caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.f j Alternative to co-trimoxazole.f

Syphilis

Alternative to penicillin G for treatment of primary, secondary, latent, or tertiary syphilis (not neurosyphilis) in nonpregnant adults and adolescents hypersensitive to penicillins.c 116 Doxycycline and tetracycline are the preferred tetracyclines in patients hypersensitive to penicillins.101 Use tetracyclines only if compliance and follow-up can be ensured since efficacy not well documented.101

Tularemia

Treatment of tularemia caused by Francisella tularensis.c 116 Tetracyclines (usually doxycycline) considered alternatives to streptomycin (or gentamicin);f h i risk of relapse and primary treatment failure may be higher than with aminoglycosides.h

Vibrio Infections

Treatment of cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.c 116 Doxycycline and tetracycline are drugs of choice; used as an adjunct to fluid and electrolyte replacement in moderate to severe disease.c 116 i

Yaws

Alternative to penicillin G for treatment of yaws caused by Treponema pertenue.c 116

Minocycline Hydrochloride Dosage and Administration

Administration

Administer orally.100 105 c 116 Has been administered by IV infusion,114 but parenteral preparations no longer available in US.

Oral Administration

Tablets116 and pellet-filled capsulesc should be administered at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Capsules105 may be administered with or without food.

Administer capsules, pellet-filled capsules, and tablets with adequate amounts of fluid to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.100 105 116

The pellet-filled capsules should be swallowed whole.100

Dosage

Available as minocycline hydrochloride; dosage expressed in terms of minocycline.100 105 116

Pediatric Patients

General Pediatric Dosage
Oral

Children >8 years of age: 4 mg/kg initially followed by 2 mg/kg every 12 hours.100 105

Mycobacterial Infections
Leprosy
Oral

Children 5–14 years of age: for treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy in certain patient groups, WHO recommends a single-dose ROM regimen that includes a single 300-mg dose of rifampin, a single 200-mg dose of ofloxacin, and a single 50-mg dose of minocycline.107

Children <5 years of age: WHO recommends that an appropriately adjusted dose of each drug in the single-dose ROM regimen be used.107

Adults

General Adult Dosage
Oral

200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours.100 105

Alternatively, if more frequent doses are preferred, 100–200 mg initially followed by 50 mg 4 times daily.100 105

Acne
Oral

50 mg 1–3 times daily.b

Chlamydial Infections
Uncomplicated Urethral, Endocervical, or Rectal Infections
Oral

100 mg every 12 hours given for ≥7 days.100 105

Gonorrhea and Associated Infections
Uncomplicated Gonorrhea (except Urethritis or Anorectal in Men)
Oral

200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours given for ≥ 4 days; follow-up cultures should be done within 2–3 days after completion of therapy.100 105

No longer recommended for gonorrhea by CDC or other experts.101

Gonococcal Urethritis in Men
Oral

100 mg every 12 hours given for 5 days.100 105

No longer recommended for gonorrhea by CDC or other experts.101

Mycobacterial Infections
Leprosy
Oral

For treatment of multibacillary leprosy in those who cannot receive rifampin because of adverse effects, intercurrent disease (e.g., chronic hepatitis), or infection with rifampin-resistant M. leprae, WHO recommends supervised administration of a regimen of clofazimine (50 mg daily), ofloxacin (400 mg daily), and minocycline (100 mg daily) given for 6 months, followed by a regimen of clofazimine (50 mg daily) and minocycline (100 mg daily) given for at least an additional 18 months.104 108 109 110

For treatment of multibacillary leprosy in adults who will not accept or cannot tolerate clofazimine,104 108 WHO recommends supervised administration of a once-monthly ROM regimen that includes rifampin (600 mg once monthly), ofloxacin (400 mg once monthly), and minocycline (100 mg once monthly) given for 24 months.104 110

For treatment of single-lesion paucibacillary leprosy in certain patient groups, WHO recommends a single-dose ROM regimen that includes a single 600-mg dose of rifampin, a single 400-mg dose of ofloxacin, and a single 100-mg dose of minocycline.104 109 110

Mycobacterium marinum Infections
Oral

Manufacturers state optimum dosage has not been established, but 100 mg every 12 hours for 6–8 weeks has been effective.100 105

100 mg twice daily for ≥3 months recommended by ATS for treatment of cutaneous infections.115 A minimum of 4–6 weeks of treatment usually is necessary to determine whether the infection is responding.115

Neisseria meningitidis Infections
N. meningitidis Carriers
Oral

100 mg every 12 hours given for 5 days.100 105

Nocardiosis
Oral

200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours given for 12–18 months.b

Nongonoccocal Urethritis
Oral

100 mg every 12 hours given for ≥ 7 days.100 105

Rheumatoid Arthritis
Oral

100 mg twice daily.111 112 113 A benefit may be evident within 1–3 months.111

Syphilis
Oral

200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours given for 10–15 days.100 105 Close follow-up and laboratory tests are recommended.100 105

Vibrio Infections
Cholera
Oral

200 mg initially followed by 100 mg every 12 hours given for 2–3 days.100 105

Prescribing Limits

Pediatric Patients

Oral

Do not exceed usual adult dosage.100 105

Special Populations

Renal Impairment

Data insufficient to make recommendations regarding dosage adjustment.c Dosage should not exceed 200 mg daily in patients with impaired renal function.c

Cautions for Minocycline Hydrochloride

Contraindications

  • Known hypersensitivity to minocycline, any tetracycline, or any component in the preparation.100 105

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Dental and Bone Effects

Use during tooth development (e.g., pregnancy, children <8 years of age) may cause permanent yellow-gray to brown discoloration of teeth and enamel hypoplasia.100 105 c 116 Effects are most common following long-term use, but may occur following repeated short-term use.100 105

Tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue.100 105 Reversible decrease in fibula growth rate has occurred in prematures receiving tetracycline.100 105

Use not recommended in children <8 years of age unless other appropriate drugs are ineffective or are contraindicated or unless the benefits in certain indications (e.g., anthrax) outweigh the risks.100 105 (See Pediatric Use under Cautions.)

Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity

Animal studies indicate possible fetal toxicity (e.g., retardation of skeletal development) and embryotoxicity.100 105 If used during pregnancy or if patient becomes pregnant while receiving minocycline, patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to the fetus.100 105 (See Pregnancy under Cautions.)

Nervous System Effects

Possiblility of adverse CNS effects (light-headedness, dizziness, vertigo) that may impair ability to drive vehicles or operate hazardous machinery.100 105 Vestibular reactions occur more frequently with minocycline than with other tetracyclines.b Symptoms may disappear during therapy and usually rapidly disappear when the drug is discontinued.100 105

Benign intracranial hypertension (pseudotumor cerebri) in adults reported with tetracyclines; usually manifested as headache and blurred vision.100 105 Bulging fontanels reported in infants.100 105 Effects usually resolve when drug discontinued, but possibility for permanent sequelae exists.100 105

Renal Effects

Tetracyclines have antianabolic effects and may increase BUN.100 105 c

In patients with impaired renal function, high serum minocycline concentrations may result in azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.100 105 Excessive drug accumulation and possible liver toxicity may occur if usual dosage is used in patients with renal impairment.100 105 c (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Laboratory Monitoring

Periodically assess organ system function, including renal, hepatic and hematopoietic, during long-term therapy.100 105

Sensitivity Reactions

Photosensitivity Reactions

Photosensitivity, manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction, reported with tetracyclines.100 105

Photosensitivity reactions may develop within a few minutes to several hours after sun exposure and usually persist 1–2 days after discontinuance of the drug.a Most reactions result from accumulation of tetracyclines in skin and are phototoxic in nature; photoallergic reactions may also occur.a

Discontinue drug at first evidence of skin erythema.100 105

Hypersensitivity Reactions

Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus and, rarely, pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia have been reported.116 A transient lupus-like syndrome and serum sickness-like reaction also have been reported.100 116

General Precautions

Hepatotoxicity

Hepatotoxicity has been reported.100 105 Use with caution in patients with hepatic dysfunction and in those receiving other hepatotoxic drug.100 105

Superinfection

Possible emergence and overgrowth of nonsusceptible bacteria or fungi.100 105 Discontinue drug and institute appropriate therapy if superinfection occurs.100 105

Selection and Use of Anti-infectives

To reduce development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of minocycline and other antibacterials, use only for treatment or prevention of infections proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria.c 116

When selecting or modifying anti-infective therapy, use results of culture and in vitro susceptibility testing.c 116 In the absence of such data, consider local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns when selecting anti-infectives for empiric therapy.c 116

Because many strains of Acinetobacter, Bacteroides, Enterobacter, E. coli, Klebsiella, Shigella, S. pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci), S. pneumoniae, enterococci, and α-hemolytic streptococci are resistant to tetracyclines (including minocycline), in vitro susceptibility tests should be performed if the drug is used for treatment of infections caused by these bacteria.100 105

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with minocycline therapy when indicated.100 105

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category D.100 105 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity under Cautions.)

Should not be used in pregnant women unless, in the judgment of the clinician, it is essential for the welfare of the patient and benefits outweigh the risks.100 105 CDC and others state tetracyclines can be used when necessary for treatment of inhalational anthrax in pregnant women.100 105 Since adverse effects on developing teeth and bones are dose-related, CDC suggests the tetracyclines might be used for a short period (7–14 days) before 6 months of gestation; some clinicians recommend periodic liver function testing if used in pregnant women.

Lactation

Distributed into milk;100 105 c discontinue nursing or the drug.100 105 c

AAP states maternal use of tetracyclines usually is compatible with breast-feeding since absorption of the drugs by nursing infants is negligible.i

Pediatric Use

Should not be used in children <8 years of age unless benefits outweigh the risks.100 105 (See Dental and Bone Effects under Cautions.)

Geriatric Use

Insufficient experience in those ≥65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently than younger adults.c

Select dosage with caution because of age-related decreases in hepatic, renal, and/or cardiac function and concomitant disease and drug therapy; generally initiate therapy using the low end of the dosing range.c

Hepatic Impairment

Use with caution.100 105

Renal Impairment

May result in high serum minocycline concentrations and azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.100 105

Excessive drug accumulation and possible liver toxicity may occur if usual dosage is used in patients with renal impairment.100 105 Dosage adjustment necessary in patients with impaired renal function.100 105 (See Renal Impairment under Dosage and Administration.)

Monitor serum creatinine and BUN.c

Because usual dosage of doxycycline can be used in patients with impaired renal function, it may be preferred when a tetracycline is indicated in a patient with impaired renal function.b

Common Adverse Effects

GI effects (anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea); CNS effects (dizziness, vertigo); hypersensitivity reactions; dose-related BUN increases.c 116

Interactions for Minocycline Hydrochloride

Specific Drugs

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Antacids (aluminum-, calcium-, or magnesium-containing)

Decreased minocycline absorption100 105

Administer antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium 1–2 hours before or after minocyclinea

Anticoagulants, oral

Possible increased anticoagulant effect;100 105 tetracyclines may impair utilization of prothrombin or decrease vitamin K production by intestinal bacteriaa

Monitor PT carefully; adjust anticoagulant dosage as neededa 100 105

Ergot Alkaloids

Increased risk of ergotismc

Hormonal contraceptives

Possible decreased effectiveness of oral contraceptives100 105

Use alternative nonhormonal contraceptivesa

Iron-containing preparations

Possible decreased absorption of minocycline100 105

Administer minocycline 2 hours before or 3 hours after an oral iron preparationa

Isotretinoin

Possible additive adverse nervous system effects; both minocycline and isotretinoin have been associated with pseudotumor cerebri100 105

Avoid use of isotretinoin shortly before, during, or after minocycline therapy100 105

Methoxyflurane

Possible fatal nephrotoxicity100 105

Concomitant use not recommendeda

Penicillins

Possible antagonism100 105

Concomitant use not recommendeda 100 105

Minocycline Hydrochloride Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

90–100% absorbed from GI tract in fasting adults;b peak serum concentrations attained within 1–4 hours.b c 116

Food

GI absorption may be reduced up to 20% by food and/or milk;b effect not considered clinically important.b c

Divalent and trivalent cations, including aluminum, calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc may decrease oral absorption as a result of chelation with the drug.b

Distribution

Extent

Widely distributed into body tissues and fluids.a

Only small amounts diffuse into CSF.a

Crosses placenta.c

Distributed into milk.100 105 c

Plasma Protein Binding

55–88%.a

Elimination

Metabolism

May be partially metabolized to ≥6 metabolites.b

Elimination Route

4–19% of an oral dose excreted in urine and 20–34% excreted into feces as active drug.b

Half-life

Adults with normal renal function: 11–26 hours.b c

Special Populations

Patients with impaired hepatic function: half-life 11–16 hours.b c

Patients with impaired renal function: half-life 12–30 hours.b Half-life up to 69 hours has been reported.c

Stability

Storage

Oral

Capsules

Capsules: 15–30°C.105 Protect from light, moisture, and excessive heat.105

Pellet-filled capsules: 20–25°C in tight, light-resistant container.100 Protect from light, moisture, and excessive heat.100 Discard unused drug by expiration date.c

Tablets

20–25°C.116 Protect from light, moisture, and excessive heat.116

Actions and Spectrum

  • Usually bacteriostatic,a c 116 but may be bactericidal in high concentrations or against highly susceptible organisms.a

  • Inhibits protein synthesisc 116 in susceptible organisms by reversibly binding to 30S and 50S ribosomal subunits.a

  • The complete mechanisms by which tetracyclines reduce acne lesions have not been fully elucidated.a The effects appear to result in part from the antibacterial activity of the drugs, but other mechanisms also are involved.a

  • Spectrum of activity includes many gram-positive and -negative bacteria and various other organisms (e.g., Rickettsia, Chlamydia, Mycoplasma, spirochetes).a c 116 Inactive against fungi and viruses.a

  • Gram-positive aerobes and anaerobes: Active against Actinomyces israelii, Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium perfringens, C. tetani, Nocardia, Propionibacterium acnes, and some streptococci.a c 116 Many strains of S. pyogenes and Enterococci are resistant.a c 116

  • Gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes: Active against Bartonella bacilliformis,a c 116 Brucella,a c 116 Calymmatobacterium granulomatis,a c 116 Francisella tularensis,a c 116 Haemophilus ducreyi,a c 116 H. influenzae,a c 116 Neisseria gonorrhoeae,a c 116 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia,j k Vibrio cholerae,a c 116 Y. enterocolitica,a c 116 and Y. pestis.a c 116 Many strains of Acinetobacter, E. aerogenes, E. coli, Klebsiella, and Shigella and nearly all strains of Proteus and Pseudomonas are resistant.a c 116

  • Other organisms: Active against Rickettsia, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia psittaci, C. trachomatis, Helicobacter pylori, Mycoplasma hominis, M. pneumoniae, Ureoplasma urealyticum, Borrelia burgdorferi, B. recurrentis, Leptospira, Treponema pallidum, T. pertenue, and Mycobacterium fortuitum.a c 116 Active against asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum, but is not gametocidal and not active against exoerythrocytic forms of P. falciparum.a

  • Complete cross-resistance usually occurs between minocycline and other tetracyclines (demeclocycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, tetracycline).a c 116

Advice to Patients

  • Advise patients that antibacterials (including minocycline) should only be used to treat bacterial infections and not used to treat viral infections (e.g., the common cold).c 116

  • Importance of completing full course of therapy, even if feeling better after a few days.c 116

  • Advise patients that skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may decrease effectiveness and increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable with minocycline or other antibacterials in the future.c 116

  • Importance of drinking sufficient quantities of fluids when taking capsules or tablets to reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration.a

  • Advise patients that absorption of some minocycline preparations may be reduced when taken with foods, especially those containing calcium, and that pellet-filled capsules or tablets should be taken at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals and/or milk.c 116

  • Advise patients that adverse CNS effects (light-headedness, dizziness, vertigo) may occur and caution should be used when driving vehicles or operating hazardous machinery.100 105

  • Advise patients to avoid excessive sunlight or artificial UV light and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of skin erythema;a c 116 consider use of sunscreen or sunblock.a

  • Advise patients that minocycline may decrease effectiveness of oral contraceptives and that alternative nonhormonal contraceptive measures should be used.a

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.c 116 (See Fetal/Neonatal Morbidity under Cautions.)

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.c 116

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information. (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

* available from one or more manufacturer, distributor, and/or repackager by generic (nonproprietary) name

Minocycline Hydrochloride

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Capsules

50 mg (of minocycline)*

Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules

Global, Ranbaxy, Teva, Watson

75 mg (of minocycline)*

Dynacin

Medicis

Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules

Global, Ranbaxy, Teva, Watson

100 mg (of minocycline)*

Dynacin

Medicis

Minocycline Hydrochloride Capsules

Global, Ranbaxy, Teva, Watson

Capsules, pellet-filled

50 mg (of minocycline)

Minocin

Triax

100 mg (of minocycline)

Minocin

Triax

Tablets, film coated

50 mg (of minocycline)*

Dynacin (with povidone)

Medicis

Minocycline Hydrochloride Tablets

Ranbaxy

Myrac

Glades

75 mg (of minocycline)*

Dynacin (with povidone)

Medicis

Minocycline Hydrochloride Tablets

Ranbaxy

Myrac

Glades

100 mg (of minocycline)*

Dynacin (with povidone)

Medicis

Minocycline Hydrochloride Tablets

Ranbaxy

Myrac

Glades

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2014. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

Dynacin 100MG Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$440.01 or 90/$1,240.01

Dynacin 50MG Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$249.99 or 90/$720.00

Dynacin 75MG Capsules (MEDICIS): 30/$195.99 or 90/$524.95

Dynacin 75MG Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$365.98 or 90/$1,050.02

Minocin 100MG Capsules (TRIAX PHARMACEUTICALS): 30/$321.98 or 90/$920.98

Minocycline HCl 100MG Capsules (WATSON LABS): 30/$22.99 or 90/$67.51

Minocycline HCl 100MG Tablets (PAR): 50/$199.98 or 150/$584.94

Minocycline HCl 135MG 24-hr Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$565.96 or 90/$1,660.02

Minocycline HCl 45MG 24-hr Tablets (SANDOZ): 30/$450.97 or 90/$1,252.92

Minocycline HCl 50MG Capsules (WATSON LABS): 30/$16.99 or 90/$38.97

Minocycline HCl 50MG Tablets (RANBAXY PHARMACEUTICALS): 30/$102.99 or 90/$279.97

Minocycline HCl 75MG Capsules (WATSON LABS): 30/$48.99 or 90/$126.98

Minocycline HCl 75MG Tablets (PAR): 30/$146.00 or 90/$389.97

Minocycline HCl 90MG 24-hr Tablets (MYLAN): 30/$676.01 or 90/$1,859.92

Solodyn 115MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$816.00 or 90/$2,409.92

Solodyn 135MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$799.24 or 90/$2,313.40

Solodyn 45MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$799.24 or 90/$2,313.40

Solodyn 55MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$826.96 or 90/$2,394.90

Solodyn 65MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$848.03 or 90/$2,457.84

Solodyn 80MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 30/$831.97 or 90/$2,411.99

Solodyn 90MG 24-hr Tablets (MEDICIS): 100/$2,698.59 or 300/$7,653.90

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions July 1, 2006. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

Only references cited for selected revisions after 1984 are available electronically.

100. Lederle Pharmaceuticals. Minocin (minocycline hydrochloride) pellet-filled capsules prescribing information. Pearl River, NY. 2001 Nov 1.

101. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2002. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2002; 51(No. RR-6):1-78.

102. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee, Canadian Paediatric Society. Meningococcal disease prevention and control strategies for practice-based physicians. Pediatrics. 1996; 97:404-12. [IDIS 361340] [PubMed 8604281]

103. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prevention and control of meningococcal disease: recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2005;54(No. RR-7):1-21.

104. WHO Expert Committee on Leprosy. Seventh Report. WHO Technical Report Series No. 874. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998:1-43.

105. Medicis. Dynacin (minocycline HCL) capsules prescribing information. Phoenix, AZ. 1999 Nov.

107. Anon. Essential Drugs. WHO Model Formulary. Antibacterials. Antileprosy Drugs. WHO Drug Information. 1997; 11:253-7.

108. WHO Study Group on Chemotherapy of Leprosy. Seventh Report. WHO Technical Report Series No. 847. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1994:1-24.

109. WHO. Reports on individual drugs. Simplified treatment for leprosy. WHO Drug Information. 1997; 11:131.

110. WHO. Action Programme for the elimination of leprosy (LEP). From WHO website (http://www.who.int/lep/index.html) 1999 Sept 23.

111. American College of Rheumatology Subcommittee on Rheumatoid Arthritis Guidelines. Guidelines for the management of rheumatoid arthritis: 2002 update. Arthritis Rheum. 2002; 46:328-46. [IDIS 476480] [PubMed 11840435]

112. O’Dell JR, Blakely KW, Mallek JA et al. Treatment of early seropositive rheumatoid arthritis: a two year, double-blind comparison of minocycline and hydroxychloroquine. Arthritis Rheum. 2001; 44:2236-41.

113. Tilley BC, Alarcon GS, Heyse SP et al. Minocycline in rheumatoid arthritis; a 48-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Ann Intern Med. 1995; 122:81-9. [IDIS 340780] [PubMed 7993000]

114. Lederle Parenterals. Minocin (minocycline hydrochloride) intravenous prescribing information. Carolina, Puerto Rico. 1995 Jan.

115. American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997; 156:S1-25.

116. Medicis. Dynacin (minocycline HCL) tablets prescribing information. Scottsdale, AZ. 2003 Apr.

117. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Health information for international travel, 2005–2006. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2005:198. Updates available from CDC website ().

a. AHFS Drug Information 2004. McEvoy GK, ed. Tetracyclines General Statement. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2004:433-49.

b. AHFS Drug Information 2004. McEvoy GK, ed. Minocycline Hydrochloride. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2004:453-5.

c. Wyeth. Minocin (minocycline hydrochloride) pellet-filled capsules prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA. 2005 Oct.

e. Lederle Parenterals. Minocin (minocycline) for injection prescribing information. Carolina, Puerto Rico. 2003 Oct.

f. Anon. The choice of antibacterial drugs. Med Lett Treat Guid. 2004; 2:13-26.

g. Inglesby TV, O’Toole T, Henderson DA et al for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. Anthrax as a biological weapon, 2002. Updated recommendations for management. JAMA. 2002; 287:2236-52. [IDIS 480001] [PubMed 11980524]

h. Dennis DT, Inglesby TV, Henderson DA et al for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. Tularemia as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2001; 285:2763-73. [IDIS 465175] [PubMed 11386933]

i. Committee on Infectious Diseases, American Academy of Pediatrics. Red book: 2003 report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 26th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics: 2003.

j. Irifune K, Ishida T, Shimoguchi K et al. Pneumonia caused by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with a mucoid phenotype. J Clin Microbiol. 1994; 32:2856-7. [PubMed 7852587]

k. Valdezate S, Vindel A, Loza E et al. Antimicrobial susceptibilities of unique Stenotrophomonas maltophilia clinical strains. Antmicrob Agents Chemother. 2001; 45:1581-4.

l. Inglesby TV, Dennis DT, Henderson DA et al for the Working Group on Civilian Biodefense. Plague as a biological weapon: medical and public health management. JAMA. 2000; 283:2281-90. [IDIS 446671] [PubMed 10807389]

m. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diagnosis and management of tickborne rickettsial diseases: Rocky Mountain spotted fever, ehrlichioses, and anaplasmosis -United States: a practical guide for physicians and other health-care and public health professionals.. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2006; 55(No RR-4): 1-27.

Hide
(web3)