Chemical Name: (±-1-Cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-8-methoxy-7-(3-methyl-1-piperazinyl)-4-oxo-3-quinoline- carboxylic acid sesquihydrate
Molecular Formula: C19H22FN3O4
CAS Number: 112811-59-3
Uses for Gatifloxacin
Bacterial Ophthalmic Infections
Treatment of conjunctivitis caused by susceptible Corynebacterium propinquum, Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus mitis, S. pneumoniae, or Haemophilus influenzae.1
Role of topical fluoroquinolones in management of uncomplicated bacterial conjunctivitis not fully elucidated; some clinicians suggest that the drugs be reserved principally for severe bacterial conjunctivitis because of potential development of quinolone resistance, and possibly, cost considerations.8 10 11 12
Gatifloxacin Dosage and Administration
Apply topically to the eye as an ophthalmic solution.1
Avoid contamination of applicator tip.1
Bacterial Ophthalmic Infections
Children ≥1 year of age: 1 drop of 0.3% solution in the affected eye(s) every 2 hours while awake (up to 8 times daily) for 2 days, then 1 drop up to 4 times daily while awake for the next 5 days.1
Bacterial Ophthalmic Infections
1 drop of 0.3% solution in the affected eye(s) every 2 hours while awake (up to 8 times daily) for 2 days, then 1 drop up to 4 times daily while awake for the next 5 days.1
Cautions for Gatifloxacin
Hypersensitivity to gatifloxacin, other quinolones, or any ingredient in the formulation.1
Serious, potentially fatal hypersensitivity reactions reported following systemic administration of fluoroquinolones; has occurred with the initial dose.1
If allergic reaction occurs, discontinue use and institute appropriate therapy if indicated.1
Possible overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms (e.g., fungi) with prolonged use; if superinfection occurs, discontinue gatifloxacin and institute other appropriate therapy.1
Careful monitoring, including slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fluorescein staining when appropriate, may be necessary in some patients.1
Safety and efficacy not established in children <1 year of age.1
No substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults.1
Common Adverse Effects
Conjunctival irritation, increased lacrimation, keratitis, papillary conjunctivitis, chemosis, conjunctival hemorrhage, ocular dryness, ocular discharge/irritation/pain, eyelid edema, headache, ocular redness, reduced visual acuity, taste disturbance.1
Serum gatifloxacin concentrations were undetectable (<5 ng/mL) after topical application to one eye of gatifloxacin 0.3 or 0.5% ophthalmic solution in an escalated dosage regimen (2 drops initially, then 2 drops 4 times daily for 7 days, and then 2 drops 8 times daily for 3 days).1
15–25°C; protect from freezing.1
Actions and Spectrum
Spectrum of activity includes gram-positive aerobic bacteria and some gram-negative aerobic bacteria.1
Active against C. propinquum, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. mitis, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae.1
Advice to Patients
Importance of discontinuing drug and informing clinician at first sign of rash or other sign of hypersensitivity.1
Importance of learning and adhering to proper administration techniques to avoid contamination of the product.1
Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
Zymar (with benzalkonium chloride)
This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2013. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.
Zymaxid 0.5% Solution (ALLERGAN): 3/$96.89 or 8/$257.60
This report on medications is for your information only, and is not considered individual patient advice. Because of the changing nature of drug information, please consult your physician or pharmacist about specific clinical use.
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com represent that the information provided hereunder was formulated with a reasonable standard of care, and in conformity with professional standards in the field. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com make no representations or warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such information and specifically disclaims all such warranties. Users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy are complex medical decisions requiring the independent, informed decision of an appropriate health care professional, and the information is provided for informational purposes only. The entire monograph for a drug should be reviewed for a thorough understanding of the drug's actions, uses and side effects. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com do not endorse or recommend the use of any drug. The information is not a substitute for medical care.
AHFS Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2013, Selected Revisions July 1, 2006. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Allergan, Inc. Zymar (gatifloxacin) ophthalmic solution 0.3% prescribing information. Irvine, CA; 2004 Aug.
2. Allergan, Inc. Zymar (gatifloxacin) ophthalmic solution 0.3% formulary kit: summary of efficacy and safety. Irvine, CA; 2003.
3. Tepedino ME, Jensen HG. Efficacy and safety of gatifloxacin 0.3% ophthalmic solution compared with ofloxacin 0.3% for treatment of acute bacterial conjunctivitis. Poster presented at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) Orlando, FL: 2002 Oct 20-3. Poster No. 165
4. Mah FS. New antibiotics for bacterial infections. Ophthalmol Clin North Am. 2003; 16:11-27. [PubMed 12683245]
5. Zhanel GC, Ennis K, Vercaigne L et al. A critical review of the fluoroquinolones: focus on respiratory tract infections. Drugs. 2002; 62:13-59. [PubMed 11790155]
6. O’Brien T. Conjunctivitis. In: Mandell GL, Bennett JE, Dolin R eds. Principles and practices of infectious diseases. 5th ed. New York: Churchill Livingstone; 2000:1251-6.
7. Limberg MB. A review of bacterial keratitis and bacterial conjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1991; 112:2-9S.
8. Thielen TL, Castle SS, Terry JE. Anterior ocular infections: an overview of pathophysiology and treatment. Ann Pharmacother. 2000; 34:235-46. [IDIS 439875] [PubMed 10676832]
9. Bearden DT, Danziger LH. Mechanism of action of and resistance to quinolones. Pharmacotherapy. 2001; 21:224S-32S. [IDIS 472236] [PubMed 11642689]
10. Yolton DP. New antibacterial drugs for topical ophthalmic use. Optom Clin. 1992; 2:59-72.
11. Gwon A for the Ofloxacin Study Group II. Ofloxacin vs tobramycin for the treatment of external ocular infection. Arch Ophthalmol. 1992; 110:1234-7. [IDIS 301536] [PubMed 1520109]
12. Robert PY, Adenis JP. Comparative review of topical ophthalmic antibacterial preparations. Drugs. 2001; 61:175-85. [PubMed 11270936]
13. Allergan, Inc, Irvine, CA: Personal communication.