Class: Platelet-Aggregation Inhibitors
ATC Class: B01AC04
Genetic variations of CYP2C19 can result in impaired metabolism and reduced effectiveness of clopidogrel.1 121 (See Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function under Cautions.) Higher rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (e.g., death, MI, stroke) have been reported in poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 receiving clopidogrel at recommended dosages following acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or PCI compared with those who have normal CYP2C19 function.1 121
Platelet-aggregation inhibitor; thienopyridine P2Y12 platelet adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-receptor antagonist.1
Uses for Clopidogrel Bisulfate
Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Following Recent MI or Stroke or in Established Peripheral Arterial Disease
Reduction of the risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (new MI, new ischemic stroke, and vascular death) in patients with a history of recent MI, recent ischemic stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease.1 2 6 8 23 1009 1010 1011
The American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) recommends long-term antiplatelet therapy with either aspirin or clopidogrel in patients with established CAD.1010 Because of cost considerations, clopidogrel generally recommended as an alternative to aspirin in those with aspirin intolerance or contraindications (e.g., allergy).5 6 20 23 992
ACCP, the American Stroke Association (ASA), and AHA consider clopidogrel an acceptable antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke or TIAs; other options include aspirin monotherapy, cilostazol, or the combination of aspirin and extended-release dipyridamole.990 1009
Oral anticoagulation (e.g., warfarin, dabigatran) rather than antiplatelet therapy is recommended in patients with a history of ischemic stroke or TIA and concurrent atrial fibrillation; however, in patients who cannot take or choose not to take oral anticoagulants (e.g., those with difficulty maintaining stable INRs, compliance issues, dietary restrictions, cost limitations), dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin is recommended.1009
Recommended by ACCP as an acceptable antiplatelet therapy for secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in patients with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease, including those with intermittent claudication and those undergoing revascularization procedures (peripheral artery percutaneous transluminal angioplasty or peripheral artery bypass graft surgery).1011
Unstable Angina or Non-ST-Segment Elevation MI (NSTEMI)
Used in combination with aspirin for reduction of the risk of cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events in patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS, including unstable angina and NSTEMI.1 5 18 35 992 993 994 1010 Used in patients who are managed medically or with coronary intervention (e.g., PCI with or without coronary artery stenting, CABG).1 5 18 35 992 993 994 1010
Dual-drug antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12-receptor antagonist and aspirin is considered part of the current standard of care in patients with ACS.991 992 993 994 1010 The American College of Cardiology Foundation (ACCF), AHA, and other experts recommend antiplatelet therapy with a P2Y12-receptor antagonist (clopidogrel, prasugrel, or ticagrelor) in conjunction with aspirin for treatment and secondary prevention in patients with ACS, including those undergoing PCI.991 992 993 994 1010
Ticagrelor or clopidogrel generally is recommended in patients treated medically without stent placement; ticagrelor, clopidogrel, or prasugrel is recommended in patients undergoing PCI with stent placement (bare-metal or drug-eluting).992 993 994 1010
Experts generally recommend continuing treatment with a P2Y12-receptor antagonist for up to 12 months in patients managed medically without stenting and ≥12 months in those with coronary artery stents (bare-metal or drug-eluting); continue aspirin therapy indefinitely.992 993 994 1010
ACCP suggests use of ticagrelor over clopidogrel in patients with ACS, regardless of whether PCI is performed; other expert guidelines make no specific recommendations regarding P2Y12-receptor antagonist of choice.992 993 994 1010 When selecting an appropriate antiplatelet regimen, consider individual patient (e.g., ischemic and bleeding risk) and drug-related (e.g., adverse effects, drug interaction potential) factors.140 141
Efficacy of pretreatment with clopidogrel prior to diagnostic cardiac catheterization is controversial; balance potential benefit of pretreatment against increased risk of bleeding should emergency CABG be needed.35 994
ST-Segment Elevation MI (STEMI)
In patients in whom CABG is planned, withhold clopidogrel for ≥5 days prior to surgery.1004
In patients with STEMI in whom PCI is planned†, experts recommend a loading dose of a P2Y12-receptor antagonist (e.g., clopidogrel, prasugrel, ticagrelor) before or at the time of PCI in conjunction with aspirin therapy.994
Continue therapy for ≥12 months after stent implantation (bare-metal or drug-eluting), unless risk of bleeding outweighs anticipated net benefit; continue aspirin therapy indefinitely.992 993 994 (See Risks of Premature Discontinuance of Therapy under Cautions.)
The addition of warfarin to antiplatelet therapy is recommended in STEMI patients who have indications for anticoagulation (e.g., atrial fibrillation, left ventricular dysfunction, cerebral emboli, extensive wall-motion abnormality, mechanical heart valves).993 1007 1010
Triple antithrombotic therapy† with clopidogrel, low-dose aspirin, and warfarin (target INR 2–3) is suggested by ACCP in patients with anterior MI and left ventricular thrombus (or at high risk for such thrombi) undergoing stent implantation; recommended duration of triple antithrombotic therapy is dependent on whether patient has a bare-metal or drug-eluting stent.1010
Suggested by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) as alternative to aspirin for primary prevention of MI† in aspirin-allergic patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus who are at high risk for cardiovascular events (i.e., family history of CHD, smoking, hypertension, obesity, albuminuria, elevated blood cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations).95
Chronic Stable Angina
Embolism Associated with Atrial Fibrillation and/or Valvular Heart Disease
In patients with atrial fibrillation at increased risk of stroke who cannot or choose not to take oral anticoagulants for reasons other than concerns about major bleeding (e.g., those with difficulty maintaining stable INRs, compliance issues, dietary restrictions, cost limitations), combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin rather than aspirin alone is recommended.998 1007
In patients with atrial fibrillation and mitral stenosis† who cannot or choose not to take warfarin therapy for reasons other than concerns about major bleeding, ACCP recommends combination therapy with clopidogrel and aspirin rather than aspirin alone.1007
Clopidogrel Bisulfate Dosage and Administration
Timing of Treatment in Relation to PCI or CABG
Available as clopidogrel bisulfate; dosage expressed in terms of clopidogrel.1
Pharmacogenomic factors can influence response to clopidogrel; although a higher dosage or administration of additional loading doses may increase the antiplatelet response in patients who are poor metabolizers, manufacturer states that an appropriate dosage of the drug in such patients has not been determined.1 121 123 130 (See Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function under Cautions.)
Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Following Recent MI or Stroke or in Established Peripheral Arterial Disease
Acute Coronary Syndromes
Unstable Angina or NSTEMIOral
Patients undergoing PCI: Some experts suggest a 600-mg loading dose, administered as early as possible prior to or at time of the procedure, then 75 mg once daily.146 993 994 No apparent benefit with higher loading doses (e.g., 900 mg).147 994
Manufacturer states that optimal duration of therapy unknown;1 other experts recommend administering clopidogrel for up to 12 months in patients being managed medically and for ≥12 months in those undergoing PCI with coronary artery stent placement; continue aspirin indefinitely.992 993 994 1010
In patients receiving a bare-metal stent for a non-ACS indication, administer clopidogrel for up to 12 months unless patient has an increased risk of bleeding; in this situation, give clopidogrel with aspirin for a minimum of 2 weeks.994
Manufacturer recommends 75 mg once daily with or without a loading dose in combination with aspirin.1
Patients undergoing PCI: Some experts recommend a 600-mg loading dose, administered as early as possible prior to or at time of the procedure, then 75 mg once daily.146 994 No apparent benefit with higher loading doses (e.g., 900 mg).147 994
Manufacturer states that optimal duration of therapy unknown.1 Some experts generally recommend dual antiplatelet therapy (e.g., clopidogrel and aspirin) for 12 months following ACS, and possibly longer in those undergoing PCI with stent placement.992 994 1010
No dosage adjustment necessary.1
No dosage adjustment necessary.1
Cautions for Clopidogrel Bisulfate
Known hypersensitivity to clopidogrel or any ingredient in the formulation.1
Risks of Premature Discontinuance of Therapy
In general, because of the increased risk of cardiovascular events, do not prematurely discontinue treatment with a thienopyridine derivative (e.g., clopidogrel).1 45 Stent thrombosis with potentially fatal sequelae, particularly with drug-eluting stents (DES), associated with premature discontinuance of therapy with a thienopyridine derivative and aspirin.43 44 45 46 47 48 49 54 (See Unstable Angina or Non-ST-Segment Elevation MI [NSTEMI] under Uses.)
Before implantation of a DES, carefully assess patients for likelihood of compliance with prolonged dual-drug antiplatelet therapy.45 59 1004 Consider avoiding use of a DES in patients who are not expected to comply.45 59 (See Advice to Patients.) In patients who are likely to require invasive or surgical procedures ≤12 months after DES implantation, consider implantation of a bare-metal stent or use of balloon angioplasty with provisional stent implantation instead.45 1004
Clinicians performing invasive procedures must understand the consequences of premature discontinuance of thienopyridine derivative therapy in patients with DES.45 If issues about a patient’s antiplatelet therapy are unclear (e.g., concern about periprocedural bleeding), such professionals should contact the patient’s cardiologist.45 Defer elective procedures with substantial bleeding risk until completion of dual-drug antiplatelet therapy.45 If an invasive procedure is required, temporarily discontinue clopidogrel 5 days prior to the procedure.1 For non-elective procedures that mandate discontinuance of thienopyridine-derivative therapy, continue aspirin therapy if at all possible.45 Restart clopidogrel therapy as soon as possible after the procedure.1 45
Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function
Possible reduced efficacy of clopidogrel (i.e., increased risk of cardiovascular events) due to genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19 or concurrent use of drugs (e.g., omeprazole, esomeprazole) that inhibit CYP2C19.1 72 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 100 101 121 350 351 352 356 Consider use of other antiplatelet agents (e.g., prasugrel, ticagrelor) or alternative dosing strategies for clopidogrel in patients identified as potential poor metabolizers of CYP2C19.1 121 123 140 143 (See Boxed Warning.)
Specific variant alleles of CYP2C19 (e.g., CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) associated with reduced metabolism of and diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel; data on clinical outcomes are conflicting, but higher rates of major adverse cardiovascular events (e.g., death, MI, stroke, stent thrombosis) reported in patients receiving recommended dosages of clopidogrel who possess such alleles.1 76 78 79 80 82 83 88 89 90 92 104 117 118 121 (See Actions.)
Genetic tests are available to identify patients with variant CYP2C19 genotypes.1 20 121 122 143 145 While such tests are appropriate for any patient currently receiving or considering treatment with clopidogrel, the need for pharmacogenetic testing should be determined individually.121 122 123 143 Genetic variants of other CYP isoenzymes (e.g., CYP2C19*17, CYP2B6) also may affect response to clopidogrel.1 78 123 131
Concurrent use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole (potent CYP2C19 inhibitors) also shown to reduce antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel.1 72 79 84 88 89 98 100 101 102 103 109 350 351 352 (See Proton-Pump Inhibitors under Interactions.) Clinical importance not fully elucidated, but reduced effectiveness in preventing cardiovascular events possible.1 73 74 81 89 91 92 98 100 101 102 103 115 Concomitant use of other drugs that inhibit CYP2C19 also may decrease response to clopidogrel.1 100 101 (See Drugs Affecting or Metabolized by Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes under Interactions.) Avoid concomitant therapy with known inhibitors of CYP2C19 activity.1 20 101
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP)
May restore hemostasis with exogenous administration of platelets; however, platelet transfusions within 4 hours of a loading dose or within 2 hours of a maintenance dose may have reduced effectiveness.1
Bleeding is unlikely to be resolved or prevented by withholding a dose of clopidogrel because of the drug’s prolonged inhibitory effects on platelet function.1
American College of Cardiology Foundation/American College of Gastroenterology/American Heart Association (ACCF/ACG/AHA) recommends prophylactic proton-pump inhibitor therapy to reduce risk of ulcer complications and GI bleeding in patients with additional GI risk factors receiving clopidogrel and aspirin.81 87 89 136 However, consider possibility of reduced antiplatelet effects when clopidogrel is used concomitantly with certain proton-pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, esomeprazole).1 76 100 101 350 351 352 356 (See Proton-Pump Inhibitors under Interactions.)
In neonates and infants† up to 24 months of age with systemic to pulmonary artery shunts or other cardiac conditions predisposing to thrombosis, clopidogrel 0.2 mg/kg daily for 1–4 weeks achieved similar inhibition of platelet aggregation as a 75-mg daily dosage in adults; no serious hemorrhagic events reported.97
In patients ≥75 years of age, no difference in platelet aggregation observed compared with younger healthy individuals.1 In a clinical trial, geriatric patients were at greater risk for thrombotic events and major bleeding than younger patients.1
Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation in patients with severe hepatic impairment appears to be similar to that observed in healthy individuals.1
Experience limited in patients with moderate or severe renal impairment.1
Inhibition of ADP-induced platelet aggregation is decreased in patients with moderate (Clcr 30–60 mL/minute) or severe (Clcr 5–15 mL/minute) renal impairment.1
Common Adverse Effects
Chest pain,1 6 accidental injury,1 6 influenza-like symptoms,1 6 pain,1 6 headache,1 6 dizziness,1 6 abdominal pain,1 6 8 dyspepsia,1 2 3 6 8 diarrhea,1 2 3 6 8 11 nausea,1 2 3 6 arthralgia,1 6 back pain,1 6 purpura,1 6 upper respiratory tract infection,1 6 rash,1 2 3 6 8 11 pruritus.1 6
Interactions for Clopidogrel Bisulfate
Drugs Affecting or Metabolized by Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes
Converted to active metabolite by CYP2C19.1 72 78 80 81 82 83 (See Metabolism under Pharmacokinetics.) Potential pharmacokinetic (decreased concentrations of active metabolite) and pharmacodynamic (reduced antiplatelet effects) interaction with inhibitors of CYP2C19.1 72 76 81 88 89 Avoid concomitant use of drugs known to be potent inhibitors of CYP2C19.1 20 101 352 356
Potential for reduced systemic exposure to clopidogrel’s active metabolite and reduced antiplatelet effects with certain proton-pump inhibitors (e.g., omeprazole, esomeprazole) (via inhibition of CYP2C19 by proton-pump inhibitor).1 20 72 73 74 79 84 86 88 89 91 100 101 102 103 106 107 109 350 351 352 356 (See Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function under Cautions and see Drugs Affecting or Metabolized by Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes under Interactions.) Conflicting data on clinical outcomes reported, but increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events possible.1 72 73 74 81 91 98 102 103 104 105 107 108 110 111 112 113 115 119
If concomitant proton-pump inhibitor therapy is considered necessary, consider using an agent with little or no CYP2C19-inhibitory activity.81 89 92 102 103 109 111 112 114 350 352 (See Specific Drugs under Interactions.) In healthy individuals, dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, or pantoprazole had less effect on clopidogrel's antiplatelet activity than did omeprazole or esomeprazole; of these proton-pump inhibitors, dexlansoprazole appeared to have the least potential to interact with clopidogrel.350 351 352
Weigh risks and benefits of concomitant use of any proton-pump inhibitor in individual patients.102 103 112 119 ACCF/ACG/AHA states that use of a proton-pump inhibitor concomitantly with dual antiplatelet therapy may provide the optimal balance of risk and benefit in patients with ACS who have a history of upper GI bleeding.136 Risk/benefit tradeoff may favor concomitant use of dual antiplatelet therapy and a proton-pump inhibitor in stable patients with a history of GI bleeding who undergo coronary revascularization and receive a coronary stent.136 ACCF/ACG/AHA states that the risk reduction with proton-pump inhibitors is substantial in patients with risk factors for GI bleeding (e.g., advanced age; concomitant use of warfarin, corticosteroids, or NSAIAs; H. pylori infection) and may outweigh potential reduction in cardiovascular efficacy of antiplatelet treatment associated with a drug–drug interaction.136 In patients without such risk factors for GI bleeding, risk/benefit balance may favor use of antiplatelet therapy without a concomitant proton-pump inhibitor.136 Alternatively, consider concomitant therapy with antacids or H2-receptor antagonists (i.e., ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine), except for cimetidine (also a potent CYP2C19 inhibitor).1 81 89 92 100 103 112
No evidence that antacids interfere with antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel101
Caution advised; monitor bleeding times during concurrent administration93
No clopidogrel dosage adjustment required if used concomitantly with FDA-labeled dosages of dexlansoprazole353
Histamine H2-receptor antagonists (ranitidine, famotidine, nizatidine)
May consider H2-receptor antagonist (except cimetidine) as alternative to proton-pump inhibitor for gastric protection in patients receiving clopidogrel, but may not be as effective81 89 92 101 103 112 128 136
No clopidogrel dosage adjustment required if used concomitantly with FDA-labeled dosages of lansoprazole354
Potential increased risk of bleeding1
No clopidogrel dosage adjustment required if used concomitantly with FDA-labeled dosages of pantoprazole355
FDA states insufficient information available to make specific recommendations about concomitant use with clopidogrel100
Clopidogrel Bisulfate Pharmacokinetics
Following oral administration of a single dose, dose-dependent platelet aggregation inhibition can be observed in 2 hours.1
In healthy men, administration with a high-fat or standard meal decreased mean inhibition of platelet aggregation by <9%.1 Although food decreased peak plasma concentrations of the active metabolite by 57%, systemic exposure to the active metabolite was unaffected.1
Peak plasma concentrations and exposure to clopidogrel’s active metabolite decreased by 30–50% in patients with genetically reduced CYP2C19 function.1 (See Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function under Cautions).
Extensively metabolized via 2-step pathway: 1) esterase-mediated hydrolysis to inactive carboxylic acid derivative 2) formation of active thiol metabolite mediated by CYP isoenzymes (e.g., 2C19, 3A4, 2B6, 1A2).1
Excreted in urine (50%) and in feces (46%).1
Active metabolite: 30 minutes.1
25°C (may be exposed to 15–30 °C).1
Prodrug; platelet-aggregation inhibitory activity is dependent on hepatic transformation to an active metabolite.1 2 6 8 11 72 78 80 81 82 83 Metabolism influenced by CYP2C19 polymorphism.1 78 79 80 82 83 Patients with one or more variant CYP2C19 alleles (e.g., CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3) are described as poor or intermediate metabolizers; lower concentrations of active metabolite, diminished antiplatelet effects, and higher incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events observed in such patients receiving clopidogrel.1 78 79 80 81 82 83 90 117 118 Approximately 2–14% of the population is estimated to be poor metabolizers of CYP2C19; however, there is wide variability among different racial/ethnic populations.121 (See Reduced Efficacy Associated with Impaired CYP2C19 Function under Cautions.)
Active metabolite binds selectively and noncompetitively to platelet surface low-affinity platelet P2Y12 ADP-receptor binding site.1 2 4 6 11 Inhibits ADP binding to the receptor and subsequent receptor activation of the platelet glycoprotein (GP IIb/IIIa) complex necessary for fibrinogen-platelet binding.1 2 4
Advice to Patients
Importance of counseling patients about potential risks versus benefits of clopidogrel.1
Importance of informing patients that they may bleed more easily and that a longer than normal time will be required to stop bleeding when taking clopidogrel.1
Before implantation of drug-eluting stent (DES), determine likelihood of patient compliance with ≥12 months of aspirin–clopidogrel combination therapy.45
Importance of informing patients prior to hospital discharge about risks associated with premature discontinuance of such combination therapy.45 Importance of informing patient not to discontinue therapy without consulting their prescribing clinician, even if instructed to do so by another health-care professional (e.g., dentist).1 45
Importance of patient informing clinician about clopidogrel therapy before any surgery is scheduled.1 6 Prior to scheduling an invasive procedure, patients should inform their clinicians (including dentists) that they are currently taking clopidogrel; clinicians performing the invasive procedure should consult with the prescribing clinician before discontinuing clopidogrel therapy.1
Importance of patient informing clinician of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs, particularly omeprazole (including Prilosec OTC) or esomeprazole and drugs that affect bleeding (e.g., warfarin, NSAIAs).1 76 100 101 102 114 352
Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1
Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)
Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.
75 mg (of clopidogrel)
Sanofi-Aventis (also promoted by Bristol-Myers Squibb)
300 mg (of clopidogrel)
Sanofi-Aventis (also promoted by Bristol-Myers Squibb)
This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2013. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.
Plavix 300MG Tablets (B-M SQUIBB U.S. (PRIMARY CARE)): 30/$749.95 or 90/$2,199.95
Plavix 75MG Tablets (B-M SQUIBB U.S. (PRIMARY CARE)): 30/$204.99 or 90/$590.97
This report on medications is for your information only, and is not considered individual patient advice. Because of the changing nature of drug information, please consult your physician or pharmacist about specific clinical use.
The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com represent that the information provided hereunder was formulated with a reasonable standard of care, and in conformity with professional standards in the field. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com make no representations or warranties, express or implied, including, but not limited to, any implied warranty of merchantability and/or fitness for a particular purpose, with respect to such information and specifically disclaims all such warranties. Users are advised that decisions regarding drug therapy are complex medical decisions requiring the independent, informed decision of an appropriate health care professional, and the information is provided for informational purposes only. The entire monograph for a drug should be reviewed for a thorough understanding of the drug's actions, uses and side effects. The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. and Drugs.com do not endorse or recommend the use of any drug. The information is not a substitute for medical care.
AHFS Drug Information. © Copyright, 1959-2013, Selected Revisions February 15, 2013. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.
1. Sanofi-Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb. Plavix, (clopidogrel bisulfate) tablets prescribing information. New York, NY; 2010 Mar.
2. Coukell AJ, Markham A. Clopidogrel. Drugs. 1997; 54:745- 50. [PubMed 9360060]
3. Gent M, Beaumont D, Blanchard J et al. The CAPRIE Steering Committee. Randomised, blinded trial of clopidogrel versus aspirin in patients at risk of ischemic events (CAPRIE). Lancet. 1996; 348:1329-39. [IDIS 376382] [PubMed 8918275]
4. Mills DC, Puri R, Hu CJ et al. Clopidogrel inhibits the binding of ADP analogues to the receptor mediating inhibition of platelet adenylate cyclase. Arterioscler Thromb. 1992; 12:430-6. [PubMed 1558834]
5. Pepine CJ. Aspirin and newer orally active antiplatelet agents in the treatment of the post-myocardial infarction patient. J Am Coll Cardiol. 1998; 32:1126-8. [IDIS 415365] [PubMed 9768742]
6. Bristol Myers Squibb/Sanofi Pharmaceutical Partnership. Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate) clinical review. New York, NY; 1998.
7. Herbert JM, Dol F, Bernat A et al. The antiaggregating and antithrombotic activity of clopidogrel is potentiated by aspirin in several experimental models in the rabbit. Thromb Haemost. 1998; 80:512-8. [PubMed 9759636]
8. Anon. Clopidogrel for reduction of athersclerotic events. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1998; 40:59-60. [IDIS 406769] [PubMed 9629123]
9. Savi P, Pereillo JM, Uzabiaga MF et al. Identification and biological activity of the active metabolite of clopidogrel. Thromb Haemost. 2000; 84:891-6. [PubMed 11127873]
11. Patrono C, Coller B, Dalen JE et al. Platelet-active drugs. The relationships among dose, effectiveness, and side effects. Chest. 2001; 119(Suppl):39S-63S. [IDIS 459442] [PubMed 11157642]
12. Bennett CL, Connors JM, Carwile JM et al. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura associated with clopidogrel. N Engl J Med. 2000; 342:1773-7. [IDIS 447769] [PubMed 10852999]
18. The Clopidogrel in Unstable Angina to Prevent Recurrent Events Trial. Effects of clopidogrel in addition to aspirin in patients with acute coronary syndromes without ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2001; 345:494-502. [IDIS 468367] [PubMed 11519503]
19. Cadroy Y, Bossavy JP, Thalamas C et al. Early potent antithrombotic effect with combined aspirin and a loading dose of clopidogrel on experimental arterial thrombogenesis in humans. Circulation. 2000; 101:2823-8. [IDIS 448890] [PubMed 10859288]
20. Sanofi-Synthelabo/Bristol-Myers Squibb. New York, NY/Princeton, NJ. Personal communication.
22. Mehta SR, Yusuf S, Peters RJG et al. Effects of pretreatment with clopidogrel and aspirin followed by long-term therapy in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the PCI-CURE study. Lancet. 2001; 358:527-33. [IDIS 467827] [PubMed 11520521]
23. Antman EM, Anbe DT, Armstrong PW et al. ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Revise the 1999 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction). 2004. From website.
31. Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM et al et al. Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin and fibrinolytic therapy for myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation. N Engl J Med. 2005; 352:1179-89. [IDIS 532596] [PubMed 15758000]
32. Sabatine MS, Cannon CP, Gibson CM et al et al. Effect of clopidogrel pretreatment before percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction treated with fibrinolytics. The PCI-CLARITY study. JAMA. [serial online]. 2005; 294:1224-32.
33. Lange RA, Hillis LD. Concurrent antiplatelet and fibrinolytic therapy. N Engl J Med. [serial online]. 2005; 352. Editorial. Available at http://www.
35. Lansky AJ, Hochman JS, Ward PA et al. Percutaneous coronary intervention and adjunctive pharmacotherapy in women: a statement for healthcare professional from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2005; 111:940-3 [PubMed 15687113]
36. Chen ZM, Jiang LX, Chen YP et al. Addition of clopidogrel to aspirin in 45,852 patients with acute myocardial infarction: randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005; 366:1607-21. [PubMed 16271642]
37. Sanofi-Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb. Plavix, (clopidogrel bisulfate) tablets prescribing information. New York, NY; 2006 Feb.
38. Sabatine MS. Something old, something new: β blockers and clopidogrel in acute myocardial infarction. Lancet. 2005; 366:1587-9. [IDIS 543130] [PubMed 16271628]
40. Eagle KA, Guyton RA, Davidoff R et al. ACC/AHA 2004 guideline update for coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (Committee to Update the 1999 Guidelines for Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery). Available from website. Accessed 2006 Nov 10.
43. Pfisterer M, Brunner-La Rocca HP, Buser PT et al. Late clinical events after clopidogrel discontinuation may limit the benefit of drug-eluting stents. JACC. 2006; 48:2584-91. [PubMed 17174201]
44. Eisenstein EL, Anstrom KJ, Kong DF et al. Clopidogrel use and long-term clinical outcomes after drug-eluting stent implantation. JAMA. 2007;297:159-168.
45. Grines CL, Bonow RO, Casey DE et al. Prevention of premature discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary artery stenosis. A science advisory from the American Heart Association, American College of Cardiology, Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions, American College of Surgeons, and American Dental Association, with representation from the American College of Physicians. Circulation 2007; 115:813-8. Published online Jan 15, 2007. [PubMed 17224480]
46. Kereiakes DJ. Does clopidogrel each day keep stent thrombosis away? JAMA. 2007; 297:209-11. Editorial.
47. Spertus JA, Kettelkamp R, Vance C et al. Prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of premature discontinuation of thienopyridine therapy after drug-eluting stent placement. Results from the PREMIER registry. Circulation. 2006; 113:2803-9. [PubMed 16769908]
48. Jeremias A, Sylvia B, Bridges J et al. Stent thrombosis after successful sirolimus-eluting stent implantation. Circulation. 2004 109:1930-2.
49. Ong ATL, McFadden EP, Regar E et al. Late angiographic stent thrombosis (LAST) events with drug-eluting stents. JACC. 2005; 45:2088-92. [PubMed 15963413]
50. Stone GW, Aronow HD. Long-term care after percutaneous coronary intervention: focus on the role of antiplatelet therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2006; 81:641-52. [PubMed 16706262]
51. Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration. Update to FDA statement on coronary drug-eluting stents. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration; 2007 Jan 4. Available at: . Accessed 2007 Mar 13.
52. Shuchman M. Debating the risks of drug-eluting stents. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:325-8. Commentary. [PubMed 17251527]
53. Serruys PW, Kutryk MJ, Ong AT. Coronary artery stents. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:483-95. [PubMed 16452560]
54. Luscher TF, Steffel J, Eberli FR et al. Drug-eluting stent and coronary thrombosis. Biological mechanisms and clinical implications. Circulation. 2007; 115:1051-8. [PubMed 17325255]
55. Kastrati A, Mehilli J, Pache J et al. Analysis of 14 trials comparing sirolimus-eluting stents with bare-metal stents. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:1030-9. [PubMed 17296823]
56. Spaulding C, Daemen J, Boersma E et al. A pooled analysis of data comparing sirolimus-eluting stents with bare-metal stents. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:989-97. [PubMed 17296825]
57. Farb A, Boam AB. Stent thrombosis redux—the FDA perspective. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:984-7. Commentary. [PubMed 17296827]
58. Stone GW, Moses JW, Ellis SG et al. Safety and efficacy of sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting coronary stents. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:998-1008. [PubMed 17296824]
59. Maisel WH. Unanswered questions—drug-eluting stents and the risk of late thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:981-4. Editorial. [PubMed 17296826]
60. Curfman GD, Morrissey S, Jarcho JA et al. Drug-eluting coronary stents—promise and uncertainty. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:1059-60. Editorial. [PubMed 17296828]
61. Lagerqvist B, James SK, Stenestrand U et al. Long-term outcomes with drug-eluting stents versus bare-metal stents in Sweden. N Engl J Med. 2007; 356:1009-19. [PubMed 17296822]
62. Patrono C, Baigent C, Hirsh J et al. Antiplatelet drugs. American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th ed). Chest. 2008; 133(Suppl):199S-233S. [PubMed 18574266]
68. Antman EM, Hand M, Armstrong PW et al. 2007 focused update of the ACC/AHA 2004 guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51:210-47. [PubMed 18191746]
72. Gilard M, Arnaud B, Cornily JC et al. Influence of omeprazole on the antiplatelet action of clopidogrel associated with aspirin. JACC. 2008; 51:256-60, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2007.06.064. Accessed 2008 Dec 8. Available at: [PubMed 18206732]
73. Pezalla E, Day D, Pulliadath I. Initial assessment of clinical impact of a drug interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. JACC. 2008; 52:1038-9. Letter. [PubMed 18786491]
74. MEDCO. New study: A common class of GI medications reduce protection against heart attack in patients taking widely prescribed cardiovascular drug. Franklin Lakes, NJ; 2008 Nov 11. Press release from website ().
75. Gilard M, Cornily JC, Boschat J. Initial assessment of clinical impact of a drug interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. JACC. 2008; 52:1039. Reply.
76. Food and Drug Administration. Early communication about an ongoing safety review of clopidogrel bisulfate (marketed as Plavix). Rockville, MD; 2009 Jan 26. From FDA website http: / / www.fda.gov / Drugs / DrugSafety / PostmarketDrugSafetyInformationforPatientsandProviders / DrugSafetyInformationforHeathcareProfessionals / ucm079520.htm.
78. Mega JL, Close SL, Wiviott SD et al. Cytochrome p-450 polymorphisms and response to clopidogrel. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:354-62. [PubMed 19106084]
79. Simon T, Verstuyft C, Mary-Krause M et al. Genetic determinants of response to clopidogrel and cardiovascular events. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:363-75. [PubMed 19106083]
80. Collet JP, Hulot JS, Pena A et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism in young patients treated with clopidogrel after myocardial infarction: a cohort study. Lancet. 2009; 373:309-17. [PubMed 19108880]
81. Juurlink DN, Gomes T, Ko DT et al. A population-based study of the drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. CMAJ. 2009; 180:713-8. [PubMed 19176635]
82. Trenk D, Hochholzer W, Fromm MF et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 681G>A polymorphism and high on-clopidogrel platelet reactivity associated with adverse 1-year clinical outcome of elective percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting or bare-metal stents. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51:1925-34. [PubMed 18482659]
83. Frere C, Cuisset T, Morange PE et al. Effect of cytochrome p450 polymorphisms on platelet reactivity after treatment with clopidogrel in acute coronary syndrome. Am J Cardiol. 2008; 101:1088-93. [PubMed 18394438]
84. Siller-Matula JM, Spiel AO, Lang IM et al. Effects of pantoprazole and esomeprazole on platelet inhibition by clopidogrel. Am Heart J. 2009; 157:148.e1-5.
85. Small DS, Farid NA, Payne CD et al. Effects of the proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prasugrel and clopidogrel. J Clin Pharmacol. 2008; 48:475-84. [PubMed 18303127]
86. Gilard M, Arnaud B, Le Gal G et al. Influence of omeprazol on the antiplatelet action of clopidogrel associated to aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2006; 4:2508-9. [PubMed 16898956]
87. Bhatt DL, Scheiman J, Abraham NS et al. ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 expert consensus document on reducing the gastrointestinal risks of antiplatelet therapy and NSAID use. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008; 103:2890-907. [PubMed 18853965]
88. Anon. PPI interactions with clopidogrel. Medical Letter. 2009; 51:2-3.
89. Anon. PPI interactions with clopidogrel revisited. Medical Letter. 2009; 51: 13-14.
90. Freedman JE, Hylek EM. Clopidogrel, genetics, and drug responsiveness. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:411-3. [PubMed 19164193]
91. Aubert RE, Epstein RS, Teagarden JR et al. Proton pump inhibitors effect on clopidogrel effectiveness: The clopidogrel Medco outcomes study. Circulation. 2008; 118:S_815, Abstrat 3998.
92. Lau WC, Gurbel PA. The drug-drug interaction between proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. CMAJ. 2009; 180:699-700. [PubMed 19332744]
93. Otsuka America Pharmaceutical, Inc. Pletal (cilostazol) tablets prescribing information. Rockville, MD; 2007 Jan.
94. Otsuka, Rockville, MD: Personal communication on cilostazol.
95. American Diabetes Association. Aspirin therapy in diabetes: position statement. Diabetes Care. 2001; 24(Suppl.1):S62-3.
96. Snow V, Barry P, Fihn SD et al. Primary care management of chronic stable angina and asymptomatic suspected or known coronary artery disease: a clinical practice guideline from the American College of Physicians/American College of Cardiology Chronic Stable Angina Panel. Ann Intern Med. 2004; 141:562-567. [IDIS 521875] [PubMed 15466774]
97. Li JS, Yow E, Berezny KY et al. Dosing of clopidogrel for platelet inhibition in infants and young children: primary results of the Platelet Inhibition in Children On cLOpidogrel. (PICOLO) Trial. Circulation. 2008; 117:553-9. [PubMed 18195173]
98. Ho PM, Maddox TM, Wang L et al. Risk of adverse outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors following acute coronary syndrome. JAMA. 2009; 301:937-44. [PubMed 19258584]
100. Food and Drug Administration. Information for heathcare professionals: Update to the labeling of clopidogrel bisulfate (marketed as Plavix) to alert heathcare professionals about a drug interaction with omeprazole (marketed as Prilosec and Prilosec OTC). Rockville, MD; 2009 Nov 17. From FDA website .
101. Food and Drug Administration. Follow-up to the January 26, 2009 Early Communication about an ongoing safety review of clopidogrel bisulfate (marketed as Plavix) and omeprazole (marketed as Prilosec and Prilosec OTC). Rockville, MD; 2009 Nov 17. From FDA website .
102. Norgard NB, Mathews KD, Wall GC. Drug-drug interaction between clopidogrel and the proton pump inhibitors. Ann Pharmacother. 2009; 43:1266-74. [PubMed 19470853]
103. Last EJ, Sheehan AH. Review of recent evidence: potential interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2009; 66:2117-22. [PubMed 19923312]
104. Stanek EJ, Aubert RE, Flockhart DA et al. A national study of the effect of individual proton pump inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes in patients treated with clopidogrel following coronary stenting: the Clopidogrel Medco Outcomes Study. Available from website. Accessed 2009 Dec 15.
105. Dunn S, Macaulay T, Brennan D et al. Baseline proton pump inhibitor use is associated with increased cardiovascular events with and without use of clopidogrel in the CREDO trial. Circulation 2008; 118:S815. Abstract 3999.
106. Sibbing D, Morath T, Stegherr J et al. Impact of proton pump inhibitors on the antiplatelet effects of clopidogrel. Thromb Haemost. 2009; 101:714-9. [PubMed 19350116]
107. O’Donoghue ML, Braunwald E, Antman EM et al. Pharmacodynamic effect and clinical efficacy of clopidogrel and prasugrel with or without a proton-pump inhibitor: an analysis of two randomised trials. Lancet. 2009; 374:989-97. [PubMed 19726078]
108. Bhatt DL, Cryer B, Contant CF et al. The COGENT trial. Available at: http://assets.cardiosource.com/Bhatt_COGENT.ppt. Accessed 2009 Dec 15.
109. Cuisset T, Frere C, Quilici J et al. Comparison of omeprazole and pantoprazole influence on a high 150-mg clopidogrel maintenance dose the PACA (Proton Pump Inhibitors And Clopidogrel Association) prospective randomized study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009; 54:1149-53. [PubMed 19761935]
110. Rassen JA, Choudhry NK, Avorn J et al. Cardiovascular outcomes and mortality in patients using clopidogrel with proton pump inhibitors after percutaneous coronary intervention or acute coronary syndrome. Circulation. 2009; 120:2322-9. [PubMed 19933932]
111. Sibbing D, Kastrati A. Risk of combining PPIs with thienopyridines: fact or fiction?. Lancet. 2009; 374:952-4. [PubMed 19726077]
112. Juurlink DN. Proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel: putting the interaction in perspective. Circulation. 2009; 120:2310-2. [PubMed 19933929]
113. Varma C. Clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors: Are the goal posts shifting?. Thromb Res. 2009; :. [PubMed 19939439]
114. Khalique SC, Cheng-Lai A. Drug interaction between clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors. Cardiol Rev. 2009 Jul-Aug; 17:198-200.
115. Kapoor JR. Impact of combining proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103:1624. [PubMed 19463530]
116. van Werkum JW, ten Berg JM, Bredenoord AJ. Proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel: a difficult dilemma. Am Heart J. 2009; 157:e43; author reply e45. [PubMed 19464402]
117. Giusti B, Gori AM, Marcucci R et al. Relation of cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism to occurrence of drug-eluting coronary stent thrombosis. Am J Cardiol. 2009; 103:806-11. [PubMed 19268736]
118. Sibbing D, Stegherr J, Latz W et al. Cytochrome P450 2C19 loss-of-function polymorphism and stent thrombosis following percutaneous coronary intervention. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30:916-22. [PubMed 19193675]
119. Rude MK, Chey WD. Proton-pump inhibitors, clopidogrel, and cardiovascular adverse events: fact, fiction, or something in between?. Gastroenterology. 2009; 137:1168-71. [PubMed 19635603]
121. Food and Drug Administration. FDA drug safety communication: Reduced effectiveness of Plavix (clopidogrel) in patients who are poor metabolizers of the drug. Rockville, MD; 2019 Mar 12. From FDA website .
122. Genelex Corporation. Dear Health Care Provider letter regarding Plavitest Plavix (clopidogrel) resistance information package. Seattle, WA; 2010. From Genelex website.
123. Reviewers’ comments (personal observations).
124. Sanofi-Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb. Plavix, (clopidogrel bisulfate) tablets prescribing information. New York, NY; 2009 Oct.
125. Stockl KM, Le L, Zakharyan A et al. Risk of rehospitalization for patients using clopidogrel with a proton pump inhibitor. Arch Intern Med. 2010; 170:704-10. [PubMed 20421557]
126. Chua D, Lo A, Jung J. Evidence for interaction between clopidogrel and proton-pump inhibitors. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010; 67:604-5; author reply 605-6. [PubMed 20360584]
127. Bhatt DL, Fox KA, Hacke W et al. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1706-17. [PubMed 16531616]
128. Kushner FG, Hand M, Smith SC et al. 2009 Focused Updates: ACC/AHA Guidelines for the Management of Patients With ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (updating the 2004 Guideline and 2007 Focused Update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI Guidelines on Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (updating the 2005 Guideline and 2007 Focused Update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2009; 120:2271-306. [PubMed 19923169]
129. Bonello L, Camoin-Jau L, Arques S et al. Adjusted clopidogrel loading doses according to vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein phosphorylation index decrease rate of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with clopidogrel resistance: a multicenter randomized prospective study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2008; 51:1404-11. [PubMed 18387444]
130. Bonello-Palot N, Armero S, Paganelli F et al. Relation of body mass index to high on-treatment platelet reactivity and of failed clopidogrel dose adjustment according to platelet reactivity monitoring in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Am J Cardiol. 2009; 104:1511-5. [PubMed 19932784]
131. Sibbing D, Koch W, Gebhard D et al. Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement. Circulation. 2010; 121:512-8. [PubMed 20083681]
132. Bhatt DL, Fox KAA, Hacke W et al, for the CHARISMA investigators. Clopidogrel and aspirin versus aspirin alone for the prevention of atherothrombotic events. N Engl J Med. 2006; 354:1706-17. [PubMed 16531616]
133. Roy P, Bonello L, Torguson R et al. Impact of “nuisance” bleeding on clopidogrel compliance in patients undergoing intracoronary drug-eluting stent implantation. Am J Cardiol. 2008; 102:1614-7. [PubMed 19064014]
134. Kushner FG, Hand M, Smith SC Jr et al. 2009 focused updates: ACC/AHA guidelines for the management of patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2004 guideline and 2007 focused update) and ACC/AHA/SCAI guidelines on percutaneous coronary intervention (updating the 2005 guideline and 2007 focused update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2009; 120:2271-2306. [PubMed 19923169]
135. Food and Drug Administration. Safety labeling changes for Plavix (clopidogrel bisulfate)—August 2010. Available at: . Accessed 2010 Oct 3.
136. Abraham NS, Hlatky MA, Antman EM et al. ACCF/ACG/AHA 2010 Expert Consensus Document on the Concomitant Use of Proton Pump Inhibitors and Thienopyridines: A Focused Update of the ACCF/ACG/AHA 2008 Expert Consensus Document on Reducing the Gastrointestinal Risks of Antiplatelet Therapy and NSAID Use. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Expert Consensus Documents. JACC. 2010; 56: Published online Nov 8, 2010.
137. Fork FT, Lafolie P, Toth E et al. Gastroduodenal tolerance of 75 mg clopidogrel versus 325 mg aspirin in healthy volunteers. A gastroscopic study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2000;35:464 –9.
138. Abraham NS, Graham DY. NSAIDs and gastrointestinal complications: new clinical challenges. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:2681–9.
139. Sung JJ, Lau JY, Ching JY et al. Continuation of low-dose aspirin therapy in peptic ulcer bleeding: a randomized trial. Ann Intern Med. 2010;152:1–9.
140. Oh EY, Abraham T, Saad N et al. A comprehensive comparative review of adenosine diphosphate receptor antagonists. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2012; 13:175-91. [PubMed 22216937]
141. Spinler SA. Oral antiplatelet therapy after acute coronary syndrome and percutaneous coronary intervention: balancing efficacy and bleeding risk. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2010; 67(15 Suppl 7):S7-17. [PubMed 20651327]
142. Varenhorst C, James S, Erlinge D et al. Genetic variation of CYP2C19 affects both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic responses to clopidogrel but not prasugrel in aspirin-treated patients with coronary artery disease. Eur Heart J. 2009; 30:1744-52. [PubMed 19429918]
143. Holmes DR, Dehmer GJ, Kaul S et al. ACCF/AHA clopidogrel clinical alert: approaches to the FDA “boxed warning”: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on clinical expert consensus documents and the American Heart Association endorsed by the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56:321-41. [PubMed 20633831]
144. Mega JL, Close SL, Wiviott SD et al. Genetic variants in ABCB1 and CYP2C19 and cardiovascular outcomes after treatment with clopidogrel and prasugrel in the TRITON-TIMI 38 trial: a pharmacogenetic analysis. Lancet. 2010; 376:1312-9. [PubMed 20801494]
145. Gurbel PA, Tantry US, Shuldiner AR et al. Genotyping: one piece of the puzzle to personalize antiplatelet therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010; 56:112-6. [PubMed 20471192]
146. Mehta SR, Tanguay JF, Eikelboom JW et al. Double-dose versus standard-dose clopidogrel and high-dose versus low-dose aspirin in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention for acute coronary syndromes (CURRENT-OASIS 7): a randomised factorial trial. Lancet. 2010; 376:1233-43. [PubMed 20817281]
147. von Beckerath N, Taubert D, Pogatsa-Murray G et al. Absorption, metabolization, and antiplatelet effects of 300-, 600-, and 900-mg loading doses of clopidogrel: results of the ISAR-CHOICE (Intracoronary Stenting and Antithrombotic Regimen: Choose Between 3 High Oral Doses for Immediate Clopidogrel Effect) Trial. Circulation. 2005; 112:2946-50. [PubMed 16260639]
350. Frelinger AL, Lee RD, Mulford DJ et al. A randomized, 2-period, crossover design study to assess the effects of dexlansoprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, and omeprazole on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in healthy volunteers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 59:1304-11. [PubMed 22464259]
351. Angiolillo DJ, Gibson CM, Cheng S et al. Differential effects of omeprazole and pantoprazole on the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel in healthy subjects: randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover comparison studies. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2011; 89:65-74. [PubMed 20844485]
352. Sanofi-Aventis/Bristol-Myers Squibb. Plavix, (clopidogrel bisulfate) tablets prescribing information. Bridgewater, NJ; 2011 Dec.
353. Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. Dexilant (dexlansoprazole) delayed-release capsules prescribing information. Deerfield, IL; 2012 May.
354. Takeda Pharmaceuticals America, Inc. Prevacid (lansoprazole) delayed-release capsules, for delayed-release oral suspension, and delayed-release oral disintegrating tablets prescribing information. Deerfield, IL; 2012 May.
355. Pfizer. Protonix (pantoprazole sodium) delayed-release tablets and for delayed-release oral suspension prescribing information. Philadelphia, PA; 2012 May.
356. AstraZeneca. Prilosec (omeprazole) delayed-release capsules and Prilosec (omeprazole magnesium) for delayed-release oral suspension prescribing information. Wilmington, DE; 2012 Jan.
990. Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the american heart association/american stroke association. Stroke. 2011; 42:227-76. [PubMed 20966421]
991. Anderson JL, Adams CD, Antman EM et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA Focused Update Incorporated Into the ACC/AHA 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction: a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011; 123:e426-579. [PubMed 21444888]
992. Smith SC, Benjamin EJ, Bonow RO et al. AHA/ACCF secondary prevention and risk reduction therapy for patients with coronary and other atherosclerotic vascular disease: 2011 update: a guideline from the American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology Foundation endorsed by the World Heart Federation and the Preventive Cardiovascular Nurses Association. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58:2432-46. [PubMed 22055990]
993. Jneid H, Anderson JL, Wright RS et al. 2012 ACCF/AHA Focused Update of the Guideline for the Management of Patients With Unstable Angina/Non-ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction (Updating the 2007 Guideline and Replacing the 2011 Focused Update): A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2012; 60:645-81. [PubMed 22809746]
994. Levine GN, Bates ER, Blankenship JC et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/SCAI Guideline for Percutaneous Coronary Intervention. A report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2011; 58:e44-122. [PubMed 22070834]
995. ACTIVE Writing Group of the ACTIVE Investigators, Connolly S, Pogue J et al. Clopidogrel plus aspirin versus oral anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation in the Atrial fibrillation Clopidogrel Trial with Irbesartan for prevention of Vascular Events (ACTIVE W): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2006; 367:1903-12. [PubMed 16765759]
997. ACTIVE Investigators, Connolly SJ, Pogue J et al. Effect of clopidogrel added to aspirin in patients with atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 360:2066-78. [PubMed 19336502]
998. Wann LS, Curtis AB, January CT et al. 2011 ACCF/AHA/HRS focused update on the management of patients with atrial fibrillation (updating the 2006 guideline): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2011; 123:104-23. [PubMed 21173346]
1004. Douketis JD, Spyropoulos AC, Spencer FA et al. Perioperative management of antithrombotic therapy: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e326S-50S. [PubMed 22315266]
1007. You JJ, Singer DE, Howard PA et al. Antithrombotic therapy for atrial fibrillation: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e531S-75S. [PubMed 22315271]
1009. Lansberg MG, O'Donnell MJ, Khatri P et al. Antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e601S-36S. [PubMed 22315273]
1010. Vandvik PO, Lincoff AM, Gore JM et al. Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e637S-68S. [PubMed 22315274]
1011. Alonso-Coello P, Bellmunt S, McGorrian C et al. Antithrombotic therapy in peripheral artery disease: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e669S-90S. [PubMed 22315275]
1013. Monagle P, Chan AK, Goldenberg NA et al. Antithrombotic therapy in neonates and children: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines. Chest. 2012; 141(2 Suppl):e737S-801S. [PubMed 22315277]