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Biltricide

Generic Name: Praziquantel
Class: Anthelmintics
VA Class: AP200
Chemical Name: 2-(Cyclohexylcarbonyl)-1,2,3,6,7,11b-hexahydro-4H-pyrazino(2,1-a)isoquinolin-4-one
CAS Number: 55268-74-1

Introduction

Anthelmintic agent; pyrazinoisoquinoline derivative.2 3 4 5

Uses for Biltricide

Schistosomiasis

Treatment of schistosomiasis (bilharziasis) caused by all Schistosoma species pathogenic to humans.1 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 32 33 34 35 38 40 41 42 55 56 87 88 89 128 133 134 140

Drug of choice for treatment of infections caused by S. haematobium, S. japonicum, S. mansoni, S. mekongi,3 4 6 9 11 14 15 16 29 32 33 34 38 55 87 88 89 128 133 134 and S. intercalatum.11

Used for treatment of individual patients3 9 12 14 16 17 21 140 and in mass-treatment and control programs.3 6 9 12 15 18 19 20 89

Effective against all stages of Schistosoma infection, including acute phase3 6 9 12 14 15 17 18 19 20 140 and chronic phase (which may be associated with hepatosplenic involvement).9 12 15 16 21 27 30 81

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May be effective for treatment of severe schistosomiasis (e.g., neuroschistosomiasis).140 141 Initiate promptly to prevent substantial morbidity and long-term sequelae;140 141 may be initiated in cases of suspected neuroschistosomiasis pending results of confirmative tests.141

Cure rates generally lower in children6 38 and in patients with massive infections.6

Clonorchiasis

Treatment of clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis (Chinese liver fluke).1 3 4 9 11 22 25 26 31 43 87 88 90 91 92 93 102 103 104 105 118 119 128 129 134 Drug of choice.87 88 128 134

Opisthorchiasis

Treatment of opisthorchiasis caused by Opisthorchis viverrini (Southeast Asian liver fluke).1 3 4 9 11 25 26 29 44 87 94 95 96 97 102 104 105 118 119 126 128 130 131 132 134 Drug of choice.87 88 128 130 134

Other Trematode (Fluke) Infections

Treatment of trematode (fluke) infections caused by Fasciolopsis buski (intestinal fluke),11 87 88 107 Heterophyes heterophyes (intestinal fluke),11 87 Metagonimus yokogawai (intestinal fluke),9 11 106 Metorchis conjunctus (North American liver fluke), Nanophyetus salmincola (formerly Troglotrema salmincola) (intestinal fluke),135 136 and Paragonimus westermani (lung fluke).3 4 9 11 37 55 88 98 99 100 101 Drug of choice.55 87 88 134

Has been effective in a limited number of patients for treatment of infections caused by P. kellicotti (American lung fluke),48 P. heterotrema (lung fluke),111 and P. uterobilateralis (African lung fluke).71

Has been used in a limited number of patients for treatment of infections caused by Fasciola hepatica (sheep liver fluke),87 108 but treatment failures have been reported.88 110 134 Drug of choice is triclabendazole (not commercially available in the US); alternatives are bithionol (not commercially available in the US; may be available from the CDC) and nitazoxanide.134 146

Cestode (Tapeworm) Infections

Treatment of cestodiasis (tapeworm infections) caused by Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm),2 4 46 47 134 Dipylidium caninum (dog and cat tapeworm),46 134 Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm),2 4 46 134 T. solium (pork tapeworm),4 11 46 87 134 142 143 144 145 and Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm).2 3 4 9 11 23 46 87 134

Drug of choice.55 87 134 Effective against the adult, juvenile, and larval stages of susceptible cestodes.4 46

Cysticercosis

Treatment of cysticercosis, including neurocysticercosis, caused by the larval form of T. solium (Cysticercus cellulosae).3 9 11 46 52 53 55 72 73 74 88 113 114 115 116 121 123 124 134

Praziquantel and albendazole are drugs of choice, but treatment of neurocysticercosis is controversial.55 134 147 148

Corticosteroids usually used concomitantly to reduce frequency and severity of adverse nervous system effects (CSF reaction syndrome).52 55 65 73 74 76 114 115 116 121 123 134 Anticonvulsant therapy also may be necessary.52 55 65 73 74 76 114 115 116 121 123 134

In some patients with neurocysticercosis, risk of severe adverse effects may outweigh potential benefits.147 148

Do not use in patients with intraocular cysticercosis because of risk of irreversible intraocular lesions secondary to killing of the cysts.1 88 85 117 Ocular and spinal cysts generally are not treated with anthelmintic drugs since irreparable damage may occur, even with concomitant corticosteroids.55 134

Hydatid Disease

Unlikely to be effective in the treatment of larval Echinococcus infections (hydatid cysts).4 60 61 Treatment of choice is surgical resection of the cysts; if surgery is contraindicated or cysts rupture spontaneously during surgery, mebendazole or albendazole is treatment of choice.83 134

Because praziquantel kills Echinococcus (e.g., protoscoleces), it may be useful for perioperative prophylaxis or when cyst contents are spilled during surgery.122 134

Biltricide Dosage and Administration

Administration

Oral Administration

Administer orally with meals.1

Tablets may be halved or quartered to allow administration of individualized doses.1 Swallow the tablets, halves, and/or quarters with a sufficient amount of water during meals.1

Do not chew tablets.1 Retention of the tablets or tablet segments in the mouth may cause gagging or vomiting as a result of the drug's bitter taste.1

Dosage

Pediatric Patients

Schistosomiasis
Oral

Children ≥4 years of age: 20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day; space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Some clinicians recommend 20 mg/kg twice daily for 1 day for schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium or S. mansoni.134 Doses of 40 mg/kg given as a single dose or in 2 equally divided doses have been effective in some patients with schistosomiasis caused by any species.3 6 9 12 14 15 16 17 19 20 128 133

Clonorchiasis
Oral

Children ≥4 years of age: 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day; 1 11 25 26 31 43 44 87 88 90 91 92 94 95 96 102 104 105 128 129 130 134 space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Alternatively, 40–50 mg/kg given as a single dose has been effective in some patients,31 126 131 132 but may be associated with lower cure rates.31

Opisthorchiasis
Oral

Children ≥4 years of age: 25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day;1 11 25 26 31 43 44 87 88 90 91 92 94 95 96 102 104 105 128 129 130 134 space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Alternatively, 40–50 mg/kg given as a single dose has been effective in some patients,31 126 131 132 but may be associated with lower cure rates.31

Other Trematode (Fluke) Infections
Fasciolopsis buski, Heterophyes heterophyes, or Metagonimus yokogawai Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day.11 87 88 134

Nanophyetus salmincola Infections
Oral

20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day.134 135 136

Paragonimus westermani or P. uterobilateralis Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 2 days.71 134

Fasciola hepatica Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 5–8 days has been used,87 but treatment failures have occurred.88 110 134

Cestode (Tapeworm) Infections
Oral
Diphyllobothrium latum (Fish Tapeworm), Dipylidium caninum (Dog and Cat Tapeworm), Taenia saginata (Beef Tapeworm), or T. solium (Pork Tapeworm) Infections
Oral

5–10 mg/kg as a single dose.134

Hymenolepis nana (Dwarf Tapeworm) Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg as a single dose.55 87 134 Eradication may be difficult; retreatment necessary if infection persists.55

Cysticercosis
Oral

50–100 mg/kg given in 3 divided doses daily for 30 days.134

Adults

Schistosomiasis
Oral

20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day; space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Some clinicians recommend 20 mg/kg twice daily for 1 day for treatment of schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma haematobium or S. mansoni.134 Doses of 40 mg/kg given as a single dose or in 2 equally divided doses have been effective in some patients with schistosomiasis caused by any species.3 6 9 12 14 15 16 17 19 20 128 133

Clonorchiasis
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day;1 11 25 26 31 43 44 87 88 90 91 92 94 95 96 102 104 105 128 129 130 134 space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Alternatively, 40–50 mg/kg given as a single dose has been effective in some patients,31 126 131 132 but may be associated with lower cure rates.31

Opisthorchiasis
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day;1 11 25 26 31 43 44 87 88 90 91 92 94 95 96 102 104 105 128 129 130 134 space doses 4–6 hours apart.1

Alternatively, 40–50 mg/kg given as a single dose has been effective in some patients,31 126 131 132 but may be associated with lower cure rates.31

Other Trematode (Fluke) Infections
Fasciolopsis buski , Heterophyes heterophyes, or Metagonimus yokogawai Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day. 11 87 88 134

Nanophyetus salmincola Infections
Oral

20 mg/kg 3 times daily for 1 day.134 135 136

Paragonimus westermani or P. uterobilateralis Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 2 days.71 134

Fasciola hepatica Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg 3 times daily for 5–8 days has been used, but treatment failures have occurred.88 110 134 .87

Cestode (Tapeworm) Infections
Diphyllobothrium latum (Fish Tapeworm), Dipylidium caninum (Dog and Cat Tapeworm), Taenia saginata (Beef Tapeworm), or T. solium (Pork Tapeworm) Infections
Oral

5–10 mg/kg as a single dose.134

Hymenolepis nana (Dwarf Tapeworm) Infections
Oral

25 mg/kg as a single dose; re-treat if infection persists.55 87 134

Cysticercosis
Oral

50–100 mg/kg given in 3 divided doses daily for 30 days.134

Neurocysticercosis
Oral

50 mg/kg given in 3 equally divided doses daily for 14–21 days.52 53 72 74 88 113 115 116 121 Concomitant corticosteroids (e.g., dexamethasone 6–24 mg daily, prednisone 30–60 mg daily) often administered to reduce adverse nervous system effects.52 65 73 74 76 121

Consider repeating therapy in patients who show only partial resolution of cysts 3 months after a course or whose condition deteriorates.53 121 123

Special Populations

Hepatic Impairment

Use caution if usual dosage is used in patients with hepatosplenic schistosomiasis if they have moderate to severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh class B and C).1 (See Hepatic Impairment under Cautions.)

Renal Impairment

Dosage adjustments not necessary in patients with renal impairment.1 (See Pharmacokinetics.)

Geriatric Patients

No specific dosage recommendations at this time.1 (See Geriatric Use under Cautions.)

Cautions for Biltricide

Contraindications

  • Hypersensitivity to the drug.1

  • Intraocular cysticercosis.1 88

Warnings/Precautions

Warnings

Interactions

Therapeutically effective praziquantel concentrations may not be achieved in patients receiving concomitant therapy with drugs that are strong inducers of CYP450 (e.g., rifampin).1 (See Specific Drugs and Food under Interactions.)

Sensitivity Reactions

Urticaria,1 14 15 16 42 93 100 128 maculopapular rash,102 103 111 128 pruritus,14 15 16 42 93 102 and a generalized hypersensitivity reaction, including polyserositis, have been reported.1

Mild eosinophilia has occurred in patients with schistosomiasis treated with praziquantel.19 40 Consider that eosinophilia can be associated with schistosomiasis38 50 and may be a consequence of a host-mediated immunologic response to antigen release during drug-induced killing of the worms.65 77 78 Similarly, urticaria may result from an immunologic response to antigen release from the worms.100

General Precautions

Precautions Related to Treatment of Neurocysticercosis

CSF reaction syndrome (headache, exacerbation of neurologic signs and symptoms such as seizures, increased CSF protein concentrations and anticysticercal IgG levels, arachnoiditis, meningism, hyperthermia, and intracranial hypertension)52 53 72 73 74 76 114 115 116 121 123 137 occurs in almost all53 74 121 patients during treatment for neurocysticercosis and may rarely be life-threatening.73 114 115 116 Use appropriate corticosteroid therapy to reduce the frequency and severity of adverse nervous system effects.72 73 74 76 114 115 116 121 123

Manufacturer recommends that patients with schistosomiasis who have cerebral cysticercosis be hospitalized during treatment.1

GI Effects

Abdominal pain or discomfort (with or without nausea) occurs frequently.1 3 4 14 15 16 17 38 40 41 42 89 90 91 93 94 96 98 100 102 104 107 108 112 126 130 Vomiting,1 14 15 16 19 38 41 42 93 100 103 107 112 epigastric pain,90 91 93 94 107 126 anorexia,1 14 90 91 92 93 94 98 126 urge to defecate,89 and diarrhea14 16 41 91 93 94 104 107 112 126 130 have been reported.

GI reactions, principally colicky, crampy abdominal pain, occasionally may be severe and occur suddenly within 1 hour after administration of the drug; may be accompanied by fever, sweating, and bloody stools.89

Hepatic Effects

Mild to moderate, transient increases in serum AST and/or ALT concentrations1 occur in about 3–27% of patients;16 104 no evidence of serious adverse hepatic effects, even in patients with schistosomal infection associated with severe hepatosplenic involvement.1 16 81 112

Patients with Cardiac Irregularities

Monitor patients with cardiac irregularities during praziquantel treatment.1

Specific Populations

Pregnancy

Category B.1

Lactation

Distributed into milk; temporarily discontinue nursing on the day of therapy and for 72 hours after administration of the last dose.1

Pediatric Use

Safety in children <4 years of age not established.1

Geriatric Use

Insufficient experience in those ≥65 years of age to determine whether they respond differently than younger adults.1 No evidence of substantial differences in safety and efficacy relative to younger adults, but increased sensitivity cannot be ruled out.1

Substantially eliminated by kidneys; decreased renal function associated with advanced age may increase risk of toxicity.1

Hepatic Impairment

Use caution in hepatosplenic patients with schistosomiasis who have moderate to severe liver impairment (Child-Pugh class B and C);1 hepatic metabolism may be decreased, resulting in considerably higher and more prolonged plasma concentrations of unchanged drug.1

Common Adverse Effects

Dizziness,1 3 15 16 19 41 42 89 90 91 92 93 94 98 102 103 104 107 111 112 126 128 headache,1 4 14 16 19 41 42 89 90 91 92 93 94 96 98 100 102 103 104 107 111 112 121 126 128 130 malaise,1 4 104 121 126 abdominal discomfort (with or without nausea).1 3 4 14 15 16 17 38 40 41 42 89 90 91 93 94 96 98 100 102 104 107 108 112 126 130

Interactions for Biltricide

Metabolized by CYP isoenzymes (e.g., CYP3A).d

Drugs Affecting or Metabolized by Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes

Inhibitors of CYP isoenzymes: May increase plasma concentrations of praziquantel.1

Inducers of CYP isoenzymes: May reduce plasma concentrations of praziquantel.1

Specific Drugs and Food

Drug

Interaction

Comments

Anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin)

Decreased praziquantel concentrations1

Antifungals, azoles

Itraconazole or ketoconazole: Increased praziquantel concentrations1

Chloroquine

Decreased praziquantel concentrations1

Cimetidine

Increased praziquantel concentrations1 c

Dexamethasone

Decreased praziquantel concentrations1

Erythromycin

Increased praziquantel concentrations1

Grapefruit juice

Increased praziquantel concentrations1

Clinical importance unclear1

Rifampin

Decreased praziquantel concentrations and AUC1 d

Avoid concomitant use1 d

Biltricide Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

Bioavailability

About 80% of oral dose is rapidly absorbed from GI tract.1 9 36 Peak serum concentrations attained 1–3 hours after a dose.1

Extensive first-pass metabolism; only a small portion reaches systemic circulation as unchanged drug.4 9 10 36

Distribution

Extent

Distribution into human body tissues and fluids not fully characterized.65 80

In rats, concentrations of free (unbound) praziquantel in CSF were similar to those in serum.4 49 Drug concentration in CSF is 14–20% of the concurrent total (free plus protein-bound) plasma concentration.4

Distributed into milk in concentrations about 25% of maternal serum concentrations.1 36 112

Elimination

Metabolism

Rapidly and extensively metabolized, principally in the liver via hydroxylation to monohydroxylated and polyhydroxylated metabolites.4 36 Unknown if metabolites possess anthelmintic activity.65 80

Elimination Route

Approximately 70–80% of an oral dose excreted in urine within 24 hours, principally as metabolites;1 4 36 less than 0.1% of an oral dose excreted in urine unchanged.36

Half-life

Adults with normal renal and hepatic function: 0.8–1.5 hours.1 2 4 36 Half-life of metabolites is about 4–5 hours.4 36

Special Populations

Hepatic impairment: Pharmacokinetics in patients with Schistosoma mansoni infection and normal hepatic function or mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A) are similar, but half-life, peak serum concentrations, and AUC are increased in those with moderate to severe hepatic dysfunction (Child-Pugh class B and C).1 Half-life is about 3 hours in those with normal renal function, 4.7 hours in those with mild or moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A or B), and 8.5 hours in those with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C).1

Renal impairment: Excretion may be delayed; accumulation of unchanged drug not expected.1

Stability

Storage

Oral

Tablets

<30°C1 in tight containers.80

Actions and Spectrum

  • Synthetic, pyrazinoisoquinoline derivative anthelmintic agent2 3 4 5 structurally unrelated to other currently available anthelmintic agents.5

  • Active against all developmental stages of schistosomes.5 Causes dead or dying worms to be dislodged from their usual sites of residence in the mesenteric or pelvic (e.g., vesical plexus) veins to the liver where they are retained and subsequently elicit host tissue reactions (e.g., phagocytosis).4 5 6 7 8

  • Dislodgment of schistosomes to the liver is rapid, occurring within 1 hour after administration of a single oral dose.4 5 7 Dislodgment of worms results principally from contraction and paralysis of their musculature and subsequent immobilization of their suckers.2 4 5 6 7 8 112 128

  • Generally does not kill susceptible adult cestodes (tapeworms) in vivo, but causes worms to be dislodged from their usual sites of residence in the intestine by impairing function of the worms’ suckers.2 Effect is concentration dependent in vitro.2 Also causes irreversible focal vacuolization and subsequent disintegration at specific sites of the cestodal integument.2 62 63

  • Active against all Schistosoma species pathogenic to humans,4 9 10 11 12 38 including S. mansoni,3 4 5 7 8 9 11 14 15 16 29 32 33 34 38 109 S. haematobium,3 4 5 6 8 9 11 17 18 19 20 27 34 38 S. japonicum,3 4 5 6 8 9 11 28 30 S. mekongi,3 11 21 35 and S. intercalatum.10 11 12 24

  • Active against other trematodes, including the liver flukes Clonorchis sinensis,3 4 9 11 22 25 26 31 43 Opisthorchis viverrini,3 4 9 11 25 26 44 and Fasciola hepatica;87 108 the lung flukes Paragonimus westermani,3 4 9 11 37 P. uterobilateralis,71 and P. kellicotti;48 and the intestinal flukes Metagonimus yokogawai,9 11 Nanophyetus salmincola (formerly Troglotrema salmincola),135 136 138 139 Fasciolopsis buski,11 and Heterophyes heterophyes.11

  • Active against adult, juvenile, and larval stages of certain cestodes (tapeworms) pathogenic to humans including Diphyllobothrium latum (fish tapeworm),2 4 46 47 Dipylidium caninum (dog and cat tapeworm),46 Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm),2 3 4 9 11 23 46 Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm),2 4 46 T. solium (pork tapeworm),3 4 9 11 46 and Cysticercus cellulosae (larval or tissue stage of T. solium).3 9 46

Advice to Patients

  • Importance of immediately swallowing tablets, halves, and/or quarters with a sufficient amount of water during meals.1 Retention of tablets or tablet segments in the mouth may cause gagging or vomiting as a result of the drug’s bitter taste.1

  • Importance of notifying clinician of persistent or worsening symptoms of infection.1

  • Importance of completing full course of therapy, even if feeling better after a few days.1

  • Importance of not performing activities requiring mental alertness or physical coordination (e.g., operating machinery, driving a motor vehicle) on the day of, and the day following, praziquantel therapy.1

  • Importance of informing clinicians of existing or contemplated concomitant therapy, including prescription and OTC drugs.1

  • Importance of women informing clinicians if they are or plan to become pregnant or plan to breast-feed.1

  • Importance of informing patients of other important precautionary information.1 (See Cautions.)

Preparations

Excipients in commercially available drug preparations may have clinically important effects in some individuals; consult specific product labeling for details.

Praziquantel

Routes

Dosage Forms

Strengths

Brand Names

Manufacturer

Oral

Tablets, film-coated

600 mg

Biltricide (with povidone; scored)

Bayer

Comparative Pricing

This pricing information is subject to change at the sole discretion of DS Pharmacy. This pricing information was updated 02/2014. Actual costs to patients will vary depending on the use of specific retail or mail-order locations and health insurance copays.

Biltricide 600MG Tablets (SCHERING): 6/$93.22 or 18/$255.79

AHFS DI Essentials. © Copyright, 2004-2014, Selected Revisions January 1, 2008. American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland 20814.

† Use is not currently included in the labeling approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.

References

1. Bayer. Biltricide (praziquantel) tablets prescribing information. West Haven, CT; 2004 Aug.

2. Rollo IM. Drugs used in the chemotherapy of helminthiasis. In: Gilman AG, Goodman L, Gilman A, eds. Goodman and Gilman’s the pharmacological basis of therapeutics. 6th ed. New York: Macmillan Publishing Company; 1980:1024.

3. Anon. Praziquantel—a new antiparasitic drug. Med Lett Drugs Ther. 1982; 24:108-9. [PubMed 6755206]

4. Pearson RD. Praziquantel: a major advance in anthelminthic therapy. Ann Intern Med. 1983; 99:195-8. [IDIS 173847] [PubMed 6881777]

5. Andrews P. A summary of the efficacy of praziquantel against schistosomes in animal experiments and notes on its mode of action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:538-41. [IDIS 168134] [PubMed 7016122]

6. McMahon JE. Praziquantel: a new schistosomicide against Schistosoma haematobium. Br Med J. 1979; 2:1396-9. [IDIS 107169] [PubMed 519476]

7. Mehlhorn H. Becker B, Andrews P et al. In vivo and in vitro experiments on the effects of praziquantel on Schistosoma mansoni. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:544-54. [PubMed 7195245]

8. Webbe G, James C, Nelson GS et al. The effect of praziquantel on Schistosoma haematobium, S. japonicum and S. mansoni in primates. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:542-4. [PubMed 7195244]

9. Owen JA. Praziquantel for the treatment of parasitic infections. Hosp Formul. 1983; 18:609-14.

10. Frohberg H. Toxicological profile of praziquantel, a new drug against cestode and schistosome infections, as compared to some other schistosomicides. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:555-65. [IDIS 168135] [PubMed 7195246]

11. Weniger BG. Praziquantel and refugee health. JAMA. 1984; 251:2391-2. [IDIS 184448] [PubMed 6708289]

12. Webbe G. Schistosomiasis: some advances. BMJ. 1981; 283:1104-6. [IDIS 139306] [PubMed 6794779]

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14. McMahon JE. Praziquantel: a new schistosomicide against Schistosoma mansoni. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:592-4. [IDIS 168138] [PubMed 7195252]

15. Smith DH, Highton RB. Preliminary observations on the treatment of schistosomiasis mansoni with praziquantel in Kenya. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:594-6. [IDIS 168139] [PubMed 7195253]

16. da Silva LC, Sette H Jr, Christo CH et al. Praziquantel in the treatment of the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis mansoni. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:601-3. [IDIS 168140] [PubMed 7195256]

17. Oyediran ABOO, Kofie BAK, Bammeke AO et al. Clinical experience with praziquantel in the treatment of Nigerian patients infected with S. haematobium. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:581-4. [IDIS 168137] [PubMed 7016124]

18. McMahon JE. Observations on praziquantel against Schistosoma haematobium. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:579-80. [IDIS 168136] [PubMed 7195249]

19. Davis A, Biles JE, Ulrich AM et al. Tolerance and efficacy of praziquantel in phase IIA and IIB therapeutic trials in Zambian patients. Arzneimittelforschung. 1981; 31:568-74. [PubMed 7195247]

20. Pugh RNH. Single dose oral treatment in urinary schistosomiasis: a double blind trial. BMJ. 1983; 286:429-32. [IDIS 165522] [PubMed 6401550]

21. Lorette G, Jaafar MR, Grojean MF et al. Schistosomiasis mekongi diagnosed by rectal biopsy. BMJ. 1983; 286:2012-3. [IDIS 173061] [PubMed 6409206]

22. Qinan W, Jibai L, Yuehan L et al. Comparison of praziquantel, amoscanate and hexachloroparaxylol in clonorchiasis sinensis. Chin Med J. 1980; 93:849-56. [IDIS 168113] [PubMed 6780274]

23. Schenone H. Praziquantel in the treatment of Hymenolepis nana infections in children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1980; 29:320-1. [IDIS 168114] [PubMed 7369452]

24. Feldmeier H. Steiner A et al. Praziquantel compared to niridazole in schistosomiasis intercalatum therapy. Tropenmed Parasitol. 1981; 32:39-42. [IDIS 168118] [PubMed 7233551]

25. Horstmann RD, Feldheim W, Feldmeier H et al. High efficacy of praziquantel in the treatment of 22 patients with clonorchis/opisthorchis infections. Tropenmed Parasitol. 1981; 32:157-60. [IDIS 168121] [PubMed 7345680]

26. Loscher T, Nothdurft HD, Prufer L et al. Praziquantel in clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis. Tropenmed Parasitol. 1981; 32:234-6. [IDIS 168122] [PubMed 7345688]

27. Davis A, Biles JE. Initial experiences with praziquantel in the treatment of human infection due to Schistosoma haematobium. Bull World Health Organ. 1979; 57:773-9. [IDIS 168124] [PubMed 396053]

28. Ishizaki T, Kamo E. Double-blind studies of tolerance to praziquantel in Japanese patients with Schistosoma japonicum infection. Bull World Health Organ. 1979; 57:787-91. [IDIS 168125] [PubMed 396055]

29. Katz N, Rocha RS. Preliminary trials with praziquantel in human infections due to Schistosoma mansoni. Bull World Health Organ. 1979; 57:781-5. [IDIS 168126] [PubMed 396054]

30. Santos AT, Blas BL, Nosenas JS et al. Preliminary clinical trials with praziquantel in Schistosoma japonicum infections in the Philippines. Bull World Health Organ. 1979; 57:793-9. [IDIS 168127] [PubMed 396056]

31. Rim HJ, Lyu KS, Lee JS et al. Clinical evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of praziquantel (Embay 8440) against Clonorchis sinensis infection in man. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1981; 75:27-33. [IDIS 168129] [PubMed 7023402]

32. Katz N. Current results in the clinical therapy of schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1980; 22(Suppl. 4):8-17. [IDIS 168130] [PubMed 7006041]

33. Katz N, Rocha RS. Clinical trials with praziquantel in schistosomiasis mansoni. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1981; 23:72-8. [IDIS 168131] [PubMed 7025168]

34. Schutte CHJ, Osman Y, Van Deventer JMG et al. Effectiveness of praziquantel against the South African strains of Schistosoma haematobium and S. mansoni. S Afr Med J. 1983; 64:7-10. [IDIS 174417] [PubMed 6344270]

35. Nash TE, Hofstetter M, Cheever AW et al. Treatment of Schistosoma mekongi with praziquantel: a double-blind study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1982; 31:977-82. [PubMed 6751116]

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a. AHFS drug information 2007. McEvoy GK, ed. Praziquantel. Bethesda, MD: American Society of Health-System Pharmacists; 2007:54-7.

b. Robertson J, Shilkofski N, eds. The Harriet Lane handbook: a manual for pediatric house officers. 17th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby: 2005:937.

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d. Ridtitid W, Wongnawa M, Mahatthanatrakul W et al. Rifampin markedly decreases plasma concentrations of praziquantel in healthy volunteers. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002; 72:505-13. [PubMed 12426514]

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