Levodopa

In the US, Levodopa (levodopa systemic) is a member of the drug class dopaminergic antiparkinsonism agents and is used to treat Parkinson's Disease, Periodic Limb Movement Disorder and Restless Legs Syndrome.

US matches:

UK matches:

Scheme

Rec.INN

ATC (Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification)

N04BA01

CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service)

0000059-92-7

Chemical Formula

C9-H11-N-O4

Molecular Weight

197

Therapeutic Categories

Dopamine agonist

Treatment of Parkinson's disease

Chemical Name

L-Tyrosine, 3-hydroxy-

Foreign Names

  • Levodopum (Latin)
  • Levodopa (German)
  • Lévodopa (French)
  • Levodopa (Spanish)

Generic Names

  • Levodopa (OS: DCIT, USAN, BAN)
  • Lévodopa (OS: DCF)
  • L-Dopa (IS)
  • RP 15208 (IS)
  • SE 200 (IS)
  • Levodopa (PH: BP 2011, JP XV, Ph. Eur. 7, Ph. Int. 4, USP 34)
  • Lévodopa (PH: Ph. Eur. 7)
  • Levodopum (PH: Ph. Eur. 7, Ph. Int. 4)

Brand Names

  • Antiparkin (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    GAMA, Georgia
  • Apo-Levocarb (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Apotex, Canada; Apotex, Hong Kong; Apotex, Malaysia
  • Bendopa (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Weidar, Taiwan
  • Bendopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Taiwan Biotech, Taiwan
  • Benspar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Zydus, India
  • Bidopal
    GlaxoSmithKline, India
  • Bidopar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Taiwan Biotech, Taiwan
  • Carbidopa + Levodopa Teva (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva Italia, Italy
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Actavis (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Actavis, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Apotex (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Apotex, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Impax (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Impax, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Mylan (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Mylan, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Sun (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sun, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Sun (Levodopa and Levodopa)
    Sun, United States
  • Carbidopa and Levodopa Teva (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, United States
  • Carbidopa Levodopa Davur (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Davur, Spain
  • Carbidopa Lévodopa Teva (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva Santé, France
  • Carbidopa, Levodopa and Entacapone Sun (Levodopa and Carbidopa, + Entacapone)
    Sun, United States
  • Carbidopa/Levodopa Sandoz (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Netherlands
  • Carbidopa/Levodopa Sandoz CR (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Switzerland
  • Carbidopa/Levodopa Teva (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva Italia, Italy
  • Carbidopa/Levodopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Romania
  • Carbilev (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Aspen Pharmacare, South Africa
  • Carcopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Kyowa Yakuhin, Japan
  • Cardopar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    DHA, Singapore
  • Carlevod (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    LKM, Argentina
  • Cenparkin (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    CCPC, Taiwan
  • Cloisone (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Psicofarma, Mexico
  • Co-Beneldopa (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva Pharmaceuticals, United Kingdom
  • Credanil (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Remedica, Malta; Remedica, Romania
  • Cronomet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Merck Sharp & Dohme, Brazil
  • D-Dopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Drug International, Bangladesh
  • Dopa Merz (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Merz, Lithuania; Merz, Latvia
  • Dopacol (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Daito, Japan
  • dopadura B (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Mylan dura, Germany
  • dopadura C (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Mylan dura, Germany
  • dopadura C retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Mylan dura, Germany
  • Doparl
    Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Japan
  • Dopasol
    Daiichi Sankyo, Japan
  • Dopaston
    Ohara Yakuhin, Japan
  • Dopicar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Israel
  • Duellin (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Egis, Hungary
  • Duodopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Abbott, Bosnia & Herzegowina; Abbott, Belgium; Abbott, Germany; Abbott, Estonia; Abbott, Finland; Abbott, Italy; Abbott, Norway; Abbott, Sweden; Abbott Products, Australia; Abbott Products, Switzerland; AbbVie, United Kingdom; Solvay, Austria; Solvay, Bulgaria; Solvay, Denmark; Solvay, France; Solvay, Greece; Solvay, Croatia (Hrvatska); Solvay, Hungary; Solvay, Ireland; Solvay, Israel; Solvay, Latvia; Solvay, Malta; Solvay, Netherlands; Solvay, Romania; Solvay, Slovenia; Solvay, Slovakia; Solvay Pharma, Czech Republic; Solvay Pharma, Spain; Solvay Pharma, Lithuania
  • EC Doparl (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Kyowa Hakko Kirin, Japan
  • Enpalevo (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    U-Liang, Taiwan
  • Grifoparkin (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Chile, Chile
  • Half Sinemet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Merck Sharp & Dohme, United Kingdom
  • Hardal (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Farmindustria, Peru
  • isicom (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Desitin, Czech Republic; Desitin, Germany; Desitin, Lithuania; Desitin, Romania; Desitin Pharma, Slovakia
  • isicom retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Desitin, Germany
  • Kardopal (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Orion, Finland
  • Kinson
    Alphapharm, Taiwan
  • Kinson (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Alphapharm, Australia
  • Lebocar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Rontag, Argentina
  • Lecado (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, United Kingdom
  • Lecardop (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Czech Republic; Teva, Slovakia
  • Lecarge (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Klonal, Argentina; Medigroup, Peru
  • Ledocar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Unison, Philippines
  • Leparson (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Dexa Medica, Indonesia
  • Leprinton (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Tatsumi Kagaku, Japan
  • Levo/Carbidopa Sandoz (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Australia
  • Levobens-TEVA (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva, Germany
  • Levobeta C (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Betapharm, Germany
  • Levobeta C retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Betapharm, Germany
  • Levo-C AL (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Aliud, Germany
  • Levocar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Sweden
  • LevoCar retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    STADA, Austria
  • Levocarb - 1 A Pharma (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    1A Pharma, Germany
  • LevoCarb ret - 1 A Pharma (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    1A Pharma, Germany
  • Levocarb (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Biolab, Brazil
  • Levocarb-GRY (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Germany
  • Levocarbin (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    G&R, Peru
  • Levocarb-TEVA (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Bulgaria; Teva, Germany
  • Levocomp (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Hexal, Germany
  • Levocomp retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Hexal, Germany
  • Levodopa - Beida Pharm
    Beida, China
  • Levodopa Benserazid beta (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Betapharm, Germany
  • Levodopa Benserazide Teva (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva, Slovakia
  • Lévodopa Bensérazide Teva (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva Santé, France
  • Levodopa C. comp. AbZ (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    AbZ-Pharma, Germany
  • Levodopa Carbidopa Betapharm (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Betapharm, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa CF (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Centrafarm, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa Hexal (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Hexal, Italy; Hexal, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa PC (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Pharmachemie, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa Ratiopharm (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    ratiopharm, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa Sandoz (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Netherlands
  • Levodopa Carbidopa Stada (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    STADA, Netherlands
  • Levodopa comp. B STADA (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    STADA, Germany
  • Levodopa comp. C STADA (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    STADA, Germany
  • Levodopa comp.-CT (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    CT Arzneimittel, Germany
  • Levodopa Fu Seng
    Fu Seng, Taiwan
  • Levodopa/Benserazid PCH (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Pharmachemie, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Benserazid ratiopharm (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    ratiopharm, Sweden
  • Levodopa/Benserazid-CT (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    CT Arzneimittel, Germany
  • Levodopa/Benserazide Teva (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva, Lithuania; Teva, Latvia
  • Levodopa/Benserazid-neuraxpharm (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Neuraxpharm, Germany
  • Levodopa/Benserazid-ratiopharm (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Ratiopharm, Germany
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa PCH (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Pharmachemie, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa ratiopharm retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    ratiopharm, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa ratiopharm (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    ratiopharm, Denmark; Teva, Sweden
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa retard CF (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Centrafarm, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa retard Hexal (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Hexal, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa Retard PCH (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Pharmachemie, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa retard STADA (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    STADA, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa Sandoz retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Netherlands
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa STADA (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    STADA, Germany
  • Levodopa/Carbidopa-CIMEX (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Acino, Switzerland
  • Levodopa+Carbidopa Teva (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva, Spain
  • Levodopa-Benserazide Teva (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva, Czech Republic
  • Levodopa-Benserazide (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Lafedar, Argentina
  • Levodopa-ratiopharm comp. (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Ratiopharm, Germany
  • Levodop-neuraxpharm (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Neuraxpharm, Germany
  • Levodop-neuraxpharm retard (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Neuraxpharm, Germany
  • Levofamil (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Andromaco, Chile
  • Levohexal (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Australia
  • Levokom (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sandoz, Lithuania
  • Levomed (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Medochemie, Hong Kong; Medochemie, Malta; Medochemie, Malaysia
  • Levomet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Unison, Hong Kong; Unison, Singapore; Unison, Thailand
  • Levopa-C (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Wallace, India
  • Levopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Hexal, Germany; Meprofarm, Indonesia; Teva, Israel
  • Madopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Cherubino, Malta; Chugai Pharmaceutical, Japan; Deva, Turkey; Galenika, Serbia; Investi, Argentina; Roche, Albania; Roche, Austria; Roche, Australia; Roche, Aruba; Roche, Azerbaijan; Roche, Bosnia & Herzegowina; Roche, Bulgaria; Roche, Bolivia; Roche, Belarus; Roche, Switzerland; Roche, China; Roche, Cuba; Roche, Czech Republic; Roche, Germany; Roche, Denmark; Roche, Estonia; Roche, Spain; Roche, Ethiopia; Roche, Finland; Roche, United Kingdom; Roche, Georgia; Roche, Greece; Roche, Hong Kong; Roche, Croatia (Hrvatska); Roche, Hungary; Roche, Indonesia; Roche, Ireland; Roche, Iceland; Roche, Italy; Roche, Jamaica; Roche, Cambodia; Roche, South Korea; Roche, Kazakhstan; Roche, Laos; Roche, Lithuania; Roche, Luxembourg; Roche, Moldova; Roche, Malta; Roche, Mexico; Roche, Netherlands; Roche, Norway; Roche, New Zealand; Roche, Oman; Roche, Peru; Roche, Philippines; Roche, Poland; Roche, Portugal; Roche, Paraguay; Roche, Romania; Roche, Russian Federation; Roche, Slovenia; Roche, Slovakia; Roche, Thailand; Roche, Turkmenistan; Roche, Trinidad & Tobago; Roche, Taiwan; Roche, Uzbekistan; Roche, Venezuela; Roche, South Africa; Terapia, Romania
  • Madopar CR (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Austria
  • Madopar Depot (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Germany; Roche, Iceland; Roche, Norway
  • Madopar DR (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Switzerland
  • Madopar HBS (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Deva, Turkey; Investi, Argentina; Roche, Armenia; Roche, Australia; Roche, Bulgaria; Roche, Estonia; Roche, Latvia; Roche, Netherlands; Roche, Poland
  • Madopar Quick (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Finland; Roche, Iceland
  • Madopar Rapid (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Australia
  • Madopar Retard (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Spain
  • Madopar Roche (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Serbia
  • Madopark (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Sweden
  • Madopark Depot (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Sweden
  • Majormet
    CCPC, Taiwan
  • Melitase (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Tecnofarma, Chile
  • Menesit (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Banyu Seiyaku MSD, Japan
  • Menkart (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Teva, Bulgaria
  • Modopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, France; Roche, Tunisia
  • Nacom (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Merck Sharp & Dohme, Germany
  • Nakom (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Lek, Bosnia & Herzegowina; Lek, Georgia; Lek, Lithuania; Lek, Romania; Lek, Slovenia; Lek d.d., Russian Federation; Lek Pharmaceuticals, Czech Republic; Lek Pharmaceuticals, Latvia; Sandoz, Croatia (Hrvatska); Sandoz, Poland; Sandoz, Slovakia
  • Nakom Mite (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Lek, Slovenia; Sandoz, Poland
  • Nakom R (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Merck Sharp & Dohme, Slovenia
  • Neodopasol (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Daiichi Sankyo, Japan
  • Neodopaston (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Daiichi Sankyo, Japan
  • Nervocur (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Fabra, Argentina
  • Parcopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    UCB, United States
  • Pardopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Micro Synchro, India
  • Pardoz (Levodopa and Benserazide hydrochloride)
    Kalbe, Indonesia
  • Parken (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Psipharma, Colombia
  • Parkidopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Cristália, Brazil
  • Parkimet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    GlaxoSmithKline, India
  • Parkinef (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Farmaceutica Latina, Peru
  • Parkinel (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Bagó, Argentina
  • Parkiston (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Kobayashi Kako, Japan
  • Prikap (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Elea, Argentina
  • Prolopa (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Belgium; Roche, Brazil; Roche, Canada; Roche, Chile; Roche, Luxembourg; Roche, Uruguay
  • Prolopa HBS (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Uruguay
  • Restex (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Roche, Austria; Roche, Germany
  • Saniter Compuesto (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sanitas, Chile
  • Sindopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Mylan, New Zealand
  • Sinedrint (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Drintefa, Peru
  • Sinemet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Algorithm, Oman; Bristol Myers Squibb, Spain; Bristol-Myers Squibb, Ireland; IFET, Greece; M & H, Thailand; Merck, Brazil; Merck, South Korea; Merck Frosst, Canada; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Argentina; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Austria; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Australia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Belgium; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Bulgaria; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Costa Rica; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Czech Republic; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Estonia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Finland; Merck Sharp & Dohme, United Kingdom; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Guatemala; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Hong Kong; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Honduras; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Hungary; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Iceland; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Italy; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Lithuania; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Latvia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Malaysia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Nicaragua; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Netherlands; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Norway; Merck Sharp & Dohme, New Zealand; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Panama; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Peru; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Philippines; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Poland; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Portugal; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Singapore; Merck Sharp & Dohme, El Salvador; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Turkey; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Taiwan; Merck Sharp & Dohme, United States; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Venezuela; Merck Sharp & Dohme-Chibret, France; MSD, Switzerland; MSD, Denmark; MSD, Sweden; MSD, South Africa; P & D, Malta; Vianex / BIANEΞ, Greece
  • Sinemet CR (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Merck Frosst, Canada; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Australia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Bulgaria; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Chile; Merck Sharp & Dohme, China; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Costa Rica; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Estonia; Merck Sharp & Dohme, United Kingdom; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Guatemala; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Honduras; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Israel; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Lithuania; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Nicaragua; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Netherlands; Merck Sharp & Dohme, New Zealand; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Panama; Merck Sharp & Dohme, Peru; Merck Sharp & Dohme, El Salvador; Merck Sharp & Dohme, United States; MSD, Switzerland
  • Sinemet Depot (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    MSD, Sweden
  • Sinemet Depot Mite (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    MSD, Sweden
  • Sinepar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Tchaikapharma, Bulgaria
  • Stalev (Levodopa and Carbidopa, + Entacapone)
    Novartis Healthcare, Philippines
  • Stalevo (Levodopa and Carbidopa, + Entacapone)
    Novartis, Belgium; Novartis, Brazil; Novartis, Canada; Novartis, Switzerland; Novartis, Chile; Novartis, Colombia; Novartis, Indonesia; Novartis, South Korea; Novartis, Malaysia; Novartis, Netherlands; Novartis, Portugal; Novartis, Singapore; Novartis, Thailand; Novartis, Turkey; Novartis, South Africa; Novartis Biosciences, Peru; Novartis Farmaceutica, Spain; Orion, Austria; Orion, Czech Republic; Orion, Germany; Orion, Denmark; Orion, Finland; Orion, United Kingdom; Orion, Lithuania; Orion, Norway; Orion, Oman; Orion, Romania; Orion, Serbia; Orion, Slovenia; Orion, United States; Orion Corporation - SF, Italy; Orion Pharma, Sweden
  • Sulconar (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Carrion, Peru
  • Symblyopia
    O2, China
  • Syndopa (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sun, India; Sun, Russian Federation; Sun Pharma, Myanmar; Sun Pharma, Thailand
  • Syndopa Plus (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Sun, India
  • Teva Carbi-Levo (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Teva Pharmaceuticals, South Africa
  • Tidomet (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Torrent, Georgia; Torrent, Philippines; Torrent, Thailand
  • Tidomet Forte (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Torrent, India
  • Tidomet LS (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Torrent, India
  • Tidomet Plus (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Torrent, India
  • Tremonorm (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    TEVA, Russian Federation
  • Udopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Pond's Chemical, Thailand
  • Vopar (Levodopa and Benserazide)
    Medline, Thailand
  • Xi Lai Mei (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Jinghua Pharmaceutical, China
  • Zimox (Levodopa and Carbidopa)
    Famar, Georgia; Faran, Romania; Faran Laboratories, Greece

International Drug Name Search

Glossary

TermDefinition
BANBritish Approved Name
DCFDénomination Commune Française
DCITDenominazione Comune Italiana
ISInofficial Synonym
OSOfficial Synonym
PHPharmacopoeia Name
Rec.INNRecommended International Nonproprietary Name (World Health Organization)
USANUnited States Adopted Name

Click for further information on drug naming conventions and International Nonproprietary Names.

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