Generic name: enoxaparin sodium
Dosage form: injection
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All patients should be evaluated for a bleeding disorder before administration of Lovenox, unless the medication is needed urgently. Since coagulation parameters are unsuitable for monitoring Lovenox activity, routine monitoring of coagulation parameters is not required [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
For subcutaneous use, Lovenox should not be mixed with other injections or infusions. For intravenous use (i.e., for treatment of acute STEMI), Lovenox can be mixed with normal saline solution (0.9%) or 5% dextrose in water.
Lovenox is not intended for intramuscular administration.
Abdominal Surgery: In patients undergoing abdominal surgery who are at risk for thromboembolic complications, the recommended dose of Lovenox is 40 mg once a day administered by SC injection with the initial dose given 2 hours prior to surgery. The usual duration of administration is 7 to 10 days; up to 12 days administration has been administered in clinical trials.
Hip or Knee Replacement Surgery: In patients undergoing hip or knee replacement surgery, the recommended dose of Lovenox is 30 mg every 12 hours administered by SC injection. Provided that hemostasis has been established, the initial dose should be given 12 to 24 hours after surgery. For hip replacement surgery, a dose of 40 mg once a day SC, given initially 12 (±3) hours prior to surgery, may be considered. Following the initial phase of thromboprophylaxis in hip replacement surgery patients, it is recommended that continued prophylaxis with Lovenox 40 mg once a day be administered by SC injection for 3 weeks. The usual duration of administration is 7 to 10 days; up to 14 days administration has been administered in clinical trials.
Medical Patients During Acute Illness: In medical patients at risk for thromboembolic complications due to severely restricted mobility during acute illness, the recommended dose of Lovenox is 40 mg once a day administered by SC injection. The usual duration of administration is 6 to 11 days; up to 14 days of Lovenox has been administered in the controlled clinical trial.
Treatment of Deep Vein Thrombosis with or without Pulmonary Embolism: In outpatient treatment, patients with acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism who can be treated at home, the recommended dose of Lovenox is 1 mg/kg every 12 hours administered SC. In inpatient (hospital) treatment, patients with acute deep vein thrombosis with pulmonary embolism or patients with acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism (who are not candidates for outpatient treatment), the recommended dose of Lovenox is 1 mg/kg every 12 hours administered SC or 1.5 mg/kg once a day administered SC at the same time every day. In both outpatient and inpatient (hospital) treatments, warfarin sodium therapy should be initiated when appropriate (usually within 72 hours of Lovenox). Lovenox should be continued for a minimum of 5 days and until a therapeutic oral anticoagulant effect has been achieved (International Normalization Ratio 2.0 to 3.0). The average duration of administration is 7 days; up to 17 days of Lovenox administration has been administered in controlled clinical trials.
Unstable Angina and Non-Q-Wave Myocardial Infarction: In patients with unstable angina or non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, the recommended dose of Lovenox is 1 mg/kg administered SC every 12 hours in conjunction with oral aspirin therapy (100 to 325 mg once daily). Treatment with Lovenox should be prescribed for a minimum of 2 days and continued until clinical stabilization. The usual duration of treatment is 2 to 8 days; up to 12.5 days of Lovenox has been administered in clinical trials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Studies (14.5)].
Treatment of Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction: In patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, the recommended dose of Lovenox is a single IV bolus of 30 mg plus a 1 mg/kg SC dose followed by 1 mg/kg administered SC every 12 hours (maximum 100 mg for the first two doses only, followed by 1 mg/kg dosing for the remaining doses). Dosage adjustments are recommended in patients ≥75 years of age [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)]. All patients should receive aspirin as soon as they are identified as having STEMI and maintained with 75 to 325 mg once daily unless contraindicated.
When administered in conjunction with a thrombolytic (fibrin-specific or non-fibrin specific), Lovenox should be given between 15 minutes before and 30 minutes after the start of fibrinolytic therapy. In the pivotal clinical study, the Lovenox treatment duration was 8 days or until hospital discharge, whichever came first. An optimal duration of treatment is not known, but it is likely to be longer than 8 days.
For patients managed with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI): If the last Lovenox SC administration was given less than 8 hours before balloon inflation, no additional dosing is needed. If the last Lovenox SC administration was given more than 8 hours before balloon inflation, an IV bolus of 0.3 mg/kg of Lovenox should be administered [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Although no dose adjustment is recommended in patients with moderate (creatinine clearance 30–50 mL/min) and mild (creatinine clearance 50–80 mL/min) renal impairment, all such patients should be observed carefully for signs and symptoms of bleeding.
The recommended prophylaxis and treatment dosage regimens for patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) are described in Table 1 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
|Prophylaxis in abdominal surgery||30 mg administered SC once daily|
|Prophylaxis in hip or knee replacement surgery||30 mg administered SC once daily|
|Prophylaxis in medical patients during acute illness||30 mg administered SC once daily|
|Inpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis with or without pulmonary embolism, when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium||1 mg/kg administered SC once daily|
|Outpatient treatment of acute deep vein thrombosis without pulmonary embolism, when administered in conjunction with warfarin sodium||1 mg/kg administered SC once daily|
|Prophylaxis of ischemic complications of unstable angina and non-Q-wave myocardial infarction, when concurrently administered with aspirin||1 mg/kg administered SC once daily|
|Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients <75 years of age, when administered in conjunction with aspirin||30 mg single IV bolus plus a 1 mg/kg SC dose followed by 1 mg/kg administered SC once daily.|
|Treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in geriatric patients ≥75 years of age, when administered in conjunction with aspirin||1 mg/kg administered SC once daily (no initial bolus)|
Geriatric Patients with Acute ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction
For treatment of acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in geriatric patients ≥75 years of age, do not use an initial IV bolus. Initiate dosing with 0.75 mg/kg SC every 12 hours (maximum 75 mg for the first two doses only, followed by 0.75 mg/kg dosing for the remaining doses) [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No dose adjustment is necessary for other indications in geriatric patients unless kidney function is impaired [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].
Lovenox is a clear, colorless to pale yellow sterile solution, and as with other parenteral drug products, should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
The use of a tuberculin syringe or equivalent is recommended when using Lovenox multiple-dose vials to assure withdrawal of the appropriate volume of drug.
Lovenox must not be administered by intramuscular injection. Lovenox is intended for use under the guidance of a physician.
For subcutaneous administration, patients may self-inject only if their physicians determine that it is appropriate and with medical follow-up, as necessary. Proper training in subcutaneous injection technique (with or without the assistance of an injection device) should be provided.
Subcutaneous Injection Technique: Patients should be lying down and Lovenox administered by deep SC injection. To avoid the loss of drug when using the 30 and 40 mg prefilled syringes, do not expel the air bubble from the syringe before the injection. Administration should be alternated between the left and right anterolateral and left and right posterolateral abdominal wall. The whole length of the needle should be introduced into a skin fold held between the thumb and forefinger; the skin fold should be held throughout the injection. To minimize bruising, do not rub the injection site after completion of the injection.
Lovenox prefilled syringes and graduated prefilled syringes are for single, one-time use only and are available with a system that shields the needle after injection.
Remove the prefilled syringe from the blister packaging by peeling at the arrow as directed on the blister. Do not remove by pulling on the plunger as this may damage the syringe.
- Remove the needle shield by pulling it straight off the syringe (see Figure A). If adjusting the dose is required, the dose adjustment must be done prior to injecting the prescribed dose to the patient.
- Inject using standard technique, pushing the plunger to the bottom of the syringe (see Figure B).
- Remove the syringe from the injection site keeping your finger on the plunger rod (see Figure C).
- Orient the needle away from you and others, and activate the safety system by firmly pushing the plunger rod. The protective sleeve will automatically cover the needle and an audible "click" will be heard to confirm shield activation (see Figure D).
- Immediately dispose of the syringe in the nearest sharps container (see Figure E).
- The safety system can only be activated once the syringe has been emptied.
- Activation of the safety system must be done only after removing the needle from the patient's skin.
- Do not replace the needle shield after injection.
- The safety system should not be sterilized.
Activation of the safety system may cause minimal splatter of fluid. For optimal safety activate the system while orienting it downwards away from yourself and others.
Intravenous (Bolus) Injection Technique: For intravenous injection, the multiple-dose vial should be used. Lovenox should be administered through an intravenous line. Lovenox should not be mixed or co-administered with other medications. To avoid the possible mixture of Lovenox with other drugs, the intravenous access chosen should be flushed with a sufficient amount of saline or dextrose solution prior to and following the intravenous bolus administration of Lovenox to clear the port of drug. Lovenox may be safely administered with normal saline solution (0.9%) or 5% dextrose in water.