Vancomycin Disease Interactions
There are 5 disease interactions with vancomycin:
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to several weeks following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.
Intravenous use of vancomycin may cause damage to the auditory branch of the eighth cranial nerve. Permanent hearing loss has been reported. Tinnitus sometimes precedes the onset of deafness, which may progress despite withdrawal of the drug. Therapy with vancomycin, particularly if prolonged (> 10 days), should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting auditory impairment or tinnitus, since it may delay the recognition or confound the diagnosis of a drug-induced ototoxic effect. To minimize the risk of toxicity, the usual dosage should not be exceeded, use with other ototoxic agents should be avoided, and serum drug concentrations should be periodically determined and dosage adjusted to maintain desired levels. Ototoxicity has generally been associated with serum vancomycin levels of 80 to 100 mcg/mL, although toxic reactions have also been reported at levels as low as 25 mcg/mL. Serial audiograms should be obtained in patients old enough to be tested, and the dosage reduced or therapy withdrawn promptly if signs and symptoms of toxicity develop.<br /><br />Oral vancomycin is generally not associated with systemic toxicity due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, clinically significant serum concentrations have been reported in some patients following multiple oral doses of vancomycin for active Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis. Therefore, when vancomycin is administered orally, clinicians may want to heed the usual warnings and precautions associated with intravenous use of the drug.
Intravenous use of vancomycin may be associated with oto- and nephrotoxic effects. Eighth cranial nerve damage may manifest as tinnitus and varying degrees of hearing impairment. Nephrotoxicity is usually evidenced by transient elevations in BUN or serum creatinine concentrations, as well as the presence of hyaline and granular casts and albumin in the urine. Rarely, acute interstitial nephritis has been reported. Although vancomycin-induced nephrotoxicity is generally reversible following discontinuation of the drug, death from uremia has occurred. Therapy with vancomycin should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with renal impairment, since they may be at increased risk for oto- and nephrotoxicity due to drug accumulation. To minimize the risk of toxicity, the usual dosage should not be exceeded, use with other neuro- and nephrotoxic agents should be avoided, and serum drug concentrations should be periodically determined and dosage adjusted to maintain desired levels. Oto- and nephrotoxicity has generally been associated with serum vancomycin levels of 80 to 100 mcg/mL, although toxic reactions have also been reported at levels as low as 25 mcg/mL. Renal and eighth cranial nerve function should be closely monitored, and the dosage reduced or therapy withdrawn if toxicity develops.<br /><br />Oral vancomycin is generally not associated with systemic toxicity due to poor absorption from the gastrointestinal tract. However, clinically significant serum concentrations have been reported in some patients following multiple oral doses of vancomycin for active Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis. The risk for systemic adverse effects may be greatest in patients with preexisting renal impairment. Therefore, when vancomycin is administered orally, clinicians may want to heed the usual warnings and precautions associated with intravenous use of the drug.
Reversible neutropenia has been reported occasionally with intravenous use of vancomycin, usually starting one week or more after initiation of therapy or after a total dosage of more than 25 g. Agranulocytosis (granulocytes < 500/mm3) has occurred rarely. Patients with preexisting neutropenia should be monitored closely during vancomycin therapy for further decreases in leukocyte counts, and therapy discontinued if appropriate.
Vancomycin is potentially oto- and nephrotoxic. While it is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, significant systemic absorption may occur if intestinal mucosal integrity is compromised. Therapy with oral vancomycin should be administered cautiously in patients with inflammatory or ulcerative gastrointestinal diseases because of the potential for enhanced absorption of the drug.
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vancomycin drug Interactions
There are 94 drug interactions with vancomycin
Drug Interaction Classification
The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
|Major||Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderate||Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minor||Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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