Metronidazole Disease Interactions
There are 7 disease interactions with metronidazole:
The use of nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole, tinidazole) has rarely been associated with hematologic adverse effects such as mild, transient leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and bone marrow aplasia. The manufacturers recommend that therapy with nitroimidazoles be administered cautiously in patients with evidence of or a history of blood dyscrasias, and that total and differential leukocyte counts be performed before and after treatment with these drugs, particularly in patients receiving repeated courses of therapy.
- White CM, Price JJ, Hunt KM "Bone marrow aplasia associated with metronidazole." Br Med J 280 (1980): 647
- "Product Information. Flagyl (metronidazole)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
- "Product Information. Tindamax (tinidazole)." Presutti Laboratories Inc, Arlington Heights, IL.
The use of nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole, tinidazole) has been associated with the development of nervous system toxicity including convulsive seizures and dose-related peripheral neuropathy, the latter characterized primarily by numbness or paresthesia of an extremity. Persistent peripheral neuropathy has been reported in some patients treated for prolonged periods. Other neurologic adverse effects include vertigo, incoordination, ataxia, confusion, agitation, hallucinations, and depression. Therapy with nitroimidazoles should be administered cautiously in patients with or predisposed to seizures or other nervous system abnormalities. Nitroimidazole therapy should be discontinued promptly if neurologic disturbances occur.
- Learned-Coughlin S "Peripheral neuropathy induced by metronidazole." Ann Pharmacother 28 (1994): 536
- Lawford R, Sorrell TC "Amebic abscess of the spleen complicated by metronidazole-induced neurotoxicity: case report." Clin Infect Dis 19 (1994): 346-8
- Schreiber W, Spernal J "Metronidazole-induced psychotic disorder." Am J Psychiatry 154 (1997): 1170-1
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to two months following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.
- Moriarty HJ, Scobie BA "Pseudomembranous colitis in a patient on rifampicin and ethambutol." N Z Med J 04/23/80 (1980): 294-5
- Thomas E, Mehta JB "Pseudomembranous colitis due to oxacillin therapy." South Med J 77 (1984): 532-3
- Meadowcroft AM, Diaz PR, Latham GS "Clostridium difficile toxin-induced colitis after use of clindmycin phosphate vaginal cream." Ann Pharmacother 32 (1998): 309-11
Nitroimidazoles (e.g., metronidazole, tinidazole) may inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase and occasionally precipitate a disulfiram-like reaction in patients who consume alcohol while being treated. Symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, flushing, sweating, headache, abdominal cramps, and hypotension. Patients should be instructed to avoid alcohol-containing products during nitroimidazole therapy and for at least 48 to 72 hours after the last dose. Therapy with nitroimidazoles should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake. An alternative therapy may be appropriate.
- Giannini AJ, DeFrance DT "Metronidazole and alcohol: potential for combinative abuse." J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 20 (1983): 509-15
- Harries DP, Teale KF, Sunderland G "Metronidazole and alcohol: potential problems." Scott Med J 35 (1990): 179-80
- Alexander I "Alcohol-antabuse syndrome in patients receiving metronidazole during gynaecological treatment." Br J Clin Pract 39 (1985): 292-3
Metronidazole and its metabolites are moderately removed by hemodialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis.
- Kreeft JH, Ogilvie RI, Dufresne LR "Metronidazole kinetics in dialysis patients." Surgery 93 (1983): 149-53
- Somogyi A, Kong C, Sabto J, Gurr FW, Spicer WJ, McLean AJ "Disposition and removal of metronidazole in patients undergoing haemodialysis." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 25 (1983): 683-7
- Roux AF, Moirot E, Delhotal B, et al "Metronidazole kinetics in patients with acute renal failure on dialysis: a cumulative study." Clin Pharmacol Ther 36 (1984): 363-8
Metronidazole is extensively metabolized by the liver to both pharmacologically active and inactive compounds. The plasma clearance of metronidazole may be decreased and the half-life prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with metronidazole should be administered cautiously at reduced dosages in patients with severe liver disease.
- Loft S, Dossing M, Poulsen HE, et al "Influence of dose and route of administration on disposition of metronidazole and its major metabolites." Eur J Clin Pharmacol 30 (1986): 467-73
- Farrell G, Baird-Lambert J, Cvejic M, Buchanan N "Disposition and metabolism of metronidazole in patients with liver failure." Hepatology 4 (1984): 772-6
- Jensen JC, Gugler R "Single- and multiple-dose metronidazole kinetics." Clin Pharmacol Ther 34 (1983): 481-7
Flagyl I.V. RTU (brand of metronidazole ready-to-use injection) contains 14 mEq of sodium per each 500 mg dose of metronidazole. The sodium content should be considered when this product is used in patients with conditions that may require sodium restriction, such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, and fluid retention.
- "Product Information. Flagyl (metronidazole)." Searle, Skokie, IL.
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metronidazole drug Interactions
There are 174 drug interactions with metronidazole
metronidazole alcohol/food Interactions
There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with metronidazole
Drug Interaction Classification
The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
|Major||Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderate||Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minor||Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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