Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium) Disease Interactions
There are 11 disease interactions with Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium):
- Acute Alcohol Intoxication
- Closed-Angle Glaucoma
- Drug Dependence
- Renal/Liver Disease
- Respiratory Depression
- Prolonged Hypotension
- Paradoxical Reactions
The use of benzodiazepines is contraindicated in patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibiting depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of benzodiazepines may be additive with those of alcohol. Severe respiratory depression and death may occur. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.
The manufacturers consider the use of benzodiazepines to be contraindicated in patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma or untreated open-angle glaucoma. These agents do not possess anticholinergic activity but have very rarely been associated with increased intraocular pressure.
Benzodiazepines have the potential to cause dependence and abuse. Tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence can develop, particularly after prolonged use and/or excessive dosages. However, abrupt cessation following continual use of as few as 6 weeks at therapeutic levels has occasionally precipitated withdrawal symptoms. Addiction-prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, should be under careful surveillance when treated with benzodiazepines. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients. After prolonged use or if dependency is suspected, withdrawal of benzodiazepine therapy should be undertaken gradually using a dosage-tapering schedule. If withdrawal symptoms occur, temporary reinstitution of benzodiazepines may be necessary.
Benzodiazepines are metabolized by the liver, and the metabolites are excreted in the urine. Chlordiazepoxide, clorazepate, diazepam, flurazepam and quazepam undergo oxidative N-dealkylation to active metabolites that are substantially longer-acting than the parent compound. These metabolites then undergo further biotransformation to pharmacologically inactive products before excretion by the kidney. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously at lower initial dosages in patients with impaired renal and/or hepatic function. Agents that are converted to weakly active, short-acting, or inactive metabolites may be preferable in hepatic impairment. Lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam are conjugated to inactive metabolites, while alprazolam, estazolam and triazolam undergo hydroxylation to weakly active or inactive metabolites.
Benzodiazepines may cause respiratory depression and apnea, usually when given in high dosages and/or by intravenous administration. However, some patients may be susceptible at commonly used dosages, including the elderly, debilitated or severely ill patients, those receiving other CNS depressants, and those with limited ventilatory reserve, chronic pulmonary insufficiency or other respiratory disorders. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in these patients. Appropriate monitoring and individualization of dosage are particularly important, and equipment for resuscitation should be immediately available if the parenteral route is used. Benzodiazepines, especially injectable formulations, should generally be avoided in patients with sleep apnea, severe respiratory insufficiency, or hypoxia.
Abrupt cessation of benzodiazepine therapy may precipitate seizures and other withdrawal symptoms, particularly after prolonged use and/or excessive dosages. Status epilepticus may occur in patients with a history of seizures withdrawn rapidly from benzodiazepine therapy. Following chronic administration, cessation of benzodiazepine therapy should occur gradually with incrementally reduced dosages. Patients should be advised not to discontinue medication without first consulting with the physician.
Benzodiazepines should not be administered by injection to patients in shock or coma. The hypnotic and hypotensive effects of these agents may be prolonged and intensified in such patients.
Benzodiazepines depress the central nervous system and may cause or exacerbate mental depression. Episodes of mania and hypomania have also been reported in depressed patients treated with some of these agents. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of depression or suicidal tendencies. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients.
The plasma half-lives of benzodiazepines may be prolonged in obese patients, presumably due to increased distribution into fat. Marked increases in distribution (> 100%) have been reported for diazepam and midazolam, and moderate increases (25% to 100%) for alprazolam, lorazepam, and oxazepam. Therapy with benzodiazepines should be administered cautiously in obese patients, with careful monitoring of CNS status. Longer dosing intervals may be appropriate. When dosing by weight, loading doses should be based on actual body weight, while maintenance dose should be based on ideal body weight to avoid toxicity.
Paradoxical reactions, including excitability, irritability, aggressive behavior, agitation, nervousness, hostility, anxiety, sleep disturbances, nightmares and vivid dreams, have been reported with the use of benzodiazepines in psychiatric patients and pediatric patients with hyperactive aggressive disorders. Such patients should be monitored for signs of paradoxical stimulation during therapy with benzodiazepines. The manufacturers do not recommend the use of benzodiazepines for the treatment of psychosis.
There have been isolated reports associating the use of chlordiazepoxide with exacerbation of porphyria. Therapy with chlordiazepoxide should be administered cautiously in patients with porphyria.
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Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium) drug Interactions
There are 946 drug interactions with Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium)
Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium) alcohol/food Interactions
There are 2 alcohol/food interactions with Clindex (chlordiazepoxide / clidinium)
Drug Interaction Classification
The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
|Major||Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderate||Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minor||Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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