Ampicillin / probenecid Disease Interactions
There are 10 disease interactions with ampicillin / probenecid:
- Renal Dysfunction
- Blood Dyscrasias
- Uric Acid Nephrolithiasis
- Renal Dysfunction
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with most antibacterial agents and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening, with an onset of up to several weeks following cessation of therapy. Antibiotic therapy can alter the normal flora of the colon and permit overgrowth of Clostridium difficile, whose toxin is believed to be a primary cause of antibiotic-associated colitis. The colitis is usually characterized by severe, persistent diarrhea and severe abdominal cramps, and may be associated with the passage of blood and mucus. The most common culprits are clindamycin, lincomycin, the aminopenicillins (amoxicillin, ampicillin), and the cephalosporins. Therapy with broad-spectrum antibiotics and other agents with significant antibacterial activity should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of gastrointestinal diseases, particularly colitis. There is some evidence that pseudomembranous colitis, if it occurs, may run a more severe course in these patients and that it may be associated with flares in their underlying disease activity. The offending antibiotic(s) should be discontinued if significant diarrhea occurs during therapy. Stool cultures for Clostridium difficile and stool assay for C. difficile toxin may be helpful diagnostically. A large bowel endoscopy may be considered to establish a definitive diagnosis in cases of severe diarrhea.
Most beta-lactam antibiotics are eliminated by the kidney as unchanged drug and, in some cases, also as metabolites. The serum concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics and their metabolites may be increased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired renal function. Neurotoxic reactions, including encephalopathy, asterixis, myoclonus, seizures and coma, have been reported in such patients treated parenterally with these agents. Dosage adjustments may be necessary and modifications should be based on the degree of renal impairment as well as severity of infection in accordance with the individual product package labeling. Renal function tests should be performed periodically during prolonged and/or high-dose therapy, since nephrotoxicity and alterations in renal function have occasionally been associated with the use of these drugs.
The manufacturer does not recommend the use of probenecid in patients with known blood dyscrasias. Aplastic anemia, leukopenia, hemolytic anemia and other anemia have been reported infrequently during administration of probenecid. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency may increase the risk of probenecid-induced hemolytic anemia.
Probenecid may promote lithiasis by increasing uric acid concentration in the renal tubules. Adequate hydration is necessary during therapy. Patients who are dehydrated (e.g., due to severe diarrhea or vomiting) may be at increased risk for the development of uric acid kidney stones and should be encouraged to consume additional amounts of liquid or given intravenous fluid. In general, fluid intake sufficient to yield a daily urinary output of at least 2 liters is recommended. Maintenance of a slightly alkaline or neutral urine is also desirable.
The use of probenecid is not recommended in patients with a history of uric acid nephrolithiasis or a urinary urate excretion greater than 750 mg/24 hr. Probenecid may promote lithiasis by increasing uric acid concentration in the renal tubules. Adequate hydration is necessary during treatment. In general, a fluid intake sufficient to yield a daily urinary output of at least 2 liters is recommended. Maintenance of a slightly alkaline urine is also desirable.
Patients with mononucleosis treated with an aminopenicillin antibiotic, particularly ampicillin, quite frequently develop a pruritic erythematous maculopapular skin rash that generally occurs 5 to 10 days after therapy is initiated. The rash is usually self-limiting and resolves within days of discontinuing the offending agent. An altered drug metabolism or an immune-mediated process unrelated to drug hypersensitivity has been proposed as the underlying mechanism. Clinicians should recognize that a skin eruption under this circumstance does not necessarily indicate a life-long allergy to these agents or other penicillin derivatives. Therapy with aminopenicillin antibiotics may not be appropriate in patients with mononucleosis.
Parenteral ampicillin sodium contains approximately 67 to 71 mg (2.9 to 3.1 mEq) of sodium per each gram of ampicilliin activity. The combination, ampicillin-sulbactam, contains approximately 115 mg (5 mEq) of sodium per 1.5 gram of total drug. The sodium content should be considered when these products are used in patients with conditions that may require sodium restriction, such as congestive heart failure, hypertension, and fluid retention.
Penicillin antibiotics (except for agents in the penicillinase-resistant class) are removed by hemodialysis. Doses should either be scheduled for administration after dialysis or supplemental doses be given after dialysis.
The manufacturer states that probenecid should be used with caution in patients with a history of peptic ulcer. Uricosuric agents can cause upper gastrointestinal irritation and aggravate or reactivate peptic ulcer. However, these effects have primarily been reported with another uricosuric agent, sulfinpyrazone. GI effects associated with probenecid are usually limited to nausea, vomiting, and anorexia.
Probenecid may not be effective in patients with chronic renal insufficiency, particularly if creatinine clearance is below 50 mL/min. Probenecid has been used in patients with some renal impairment but dosage requirements may be increased.
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ampicillin / probenecid drug Interactions
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ampicillin / probenecid alcohol/food Interactions
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Drug Interaction Classification
The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
|Major||Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderate||Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minor||Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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