Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital) Disease Interactions
There are 13 disease interactions with Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital):
- Acute Alcohol Intoxication
- Drug Dependence
- Liver Disease
- Respiratory Depression
- Prolonged Hypotension
- Adrenal Insufficiency
- Hematologic Toxicity
- Paradoxical Reactions
The use of barbiturates is contraindicated in patients with acute alcohol intoxication exhibiting depressed vital signs. The central nervous system depressant effects of barbiturates may be additive with those of alcohol. Severe respiratory depression and death may occur. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients who might be prone to acute alcohol intake.
Barbiturates have the potential to cause dependence and abuse. Tolerance as well as physical and psychological dependence can develop, particularly after prolonged use of excessive dosages. Abrupt cessation and/or a reduction in dosage may precipitate withdrawal symptoms. In patients who have developed tolerance to a barbiturate, overdosage can still produce respiratory depression and death, and cross-tolerance usually will occur with other agents in the class. Addiction-prone individuals, such as those with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, should be under careful surveillance or medical supervision when treated with barbiturates. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients. After prolonged use or if dependency is suspected, withdrawal of barbiturates should be undertaken gradually using a dosage-tapering schedule.
Barbiturates are extensively metabolized by the liver. The plasma clearance of barbiturates may be decreased and the half-lives prolonged in patients with impaired hepatic function. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously and initiated at reduced dosages in patients with liver disease. Barbiturates are not recommended for use in patients with cirrhosis, hepatic failure, hepatic coma, or other severe hepatic impairment.
The use of barbiturates is contraindicated in patients with a history of porphyria. Barbiturates may exacerbate acute intermittent porphyria or porphyria variegata by inducing the enzymes responsible for porphyrin synthesis.
Skin eruptions may precede rare but potentially fatal barbiturate-induced reactions such as systemic lupus erythematosus and exfoliative dermatitis, the latter of which may be accompanied by hepatitis and jaundice. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting drug-induced dermatitis, since it may delay the recognition of a potential reaction to barbiturates. Barbiturate therapy should be withdrawn promptly at the first sign of a dermatologic adverse effect. However, cutaneous reactions may proceed to an irreversible stage even after cessation of medication due to the slow rate of metabolism and excretion of barbiturates. Patients should be advised to promptly report signs that may indicate impending development of barbiturate-related cutaneous lesions, including high fever, severe headache, stomatitis, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, urethritis, and balanitis. Rashes may be more likely to occur with phenobarbital and mephobarbital.
Barbiturates may produce severe respiratory depression, apnea, laryngospasm, bronchospasm and cough, particularly during rapid intravenous administration. In usual hypnotic dosages, the degree of respiratory depression produced is similar to that which occurs during physiologic sleep, while at higher dosages, the rate, depth and volume of respiration may be markedly decreased. However, some patients may be susceptible at commonly used dosages, including the elderly, debilitated or severely ill patients, those receiving other CNS depressants, and those with limited ventilatory reserve, chronic pulmonary insufficiency or other respiratory disorders. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in these patients. Appropriate monitoring and individualization of dosage are particularly important, and equipment for resuscitation should be immediately available if the parenteral route is used. Barbiturates, especially injectable formulations, should generally be avoided in patients with sleep apnea, hypoxia, or severe pulmonary diseases in which dyspnea or obstruction is evident.
The intravenous administration of barbiturates may produce severe cardiovascular reactions such as bradycardia, hypertension, or vasodilation with fall in blood pressure, particularly during rapid infusion. Parenteral therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with hypertension, hypotension, or cardiac disease. The intravenous administration of barbiturates should be reserved for emergency treatment of acute seizures or for anesthesia.
Barbiturates should not be administered by injection to patients in shock or coma or who have recently received another respiratory depressant. The hypnotic and hypotensive effects of these agents may be prolonged and intensified in such patients.
Barbiturates, especially phenobarbital, secobarbital and butabarbital, may diminish the systemic effects of exogenous and endogenous corticosteroids via induction of hepatic microsomal enzymes, thereby accelerating the metabolism of corticosteroids. In addition, barbiturates may interfere with pituitary corticotropin production. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with adrenal insufficiency. Patients with borderline hypoadrenalism should be monitored closely, and patients receiving steroid supplementation may require an adjustment in dosage when barbiturates are added to or withdrawn from their medication regimen.
Barbiturates depress the central nervous system and may cause or exacerbate mental depression. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with a history of depression or suicidal tendencies. It may be prudent to refrain from dispensing large quantities of medication to these patients.
Hematologic toxicity, including agranulocytosis, thrombocytopenic purpura and megaloblastic anemia, has been reported rarely during use of barbiturates. Therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with preexisting blood dyscrasias or bone marrow suppression. Blood counts are recommended prior to and periodically during long-term therapy, and patients should be instructed to immediately report any signs or symptoms suggestive of blood dyscrasia such as fever, sore throat, local infection, easy bruising, petechiae, bleeding, pallor, dizziness, or jaundice. Barbiturate therapy should be discontinued if blood dyscrasias occur.
Rickets and osteomalacia have rarely been reported following prolonged use of barbiturates, possibly due to increased metabolism of vitamin D as a result of enzyme induction by barbiturates. Long-term therapy with barbiturates should be administered cautiously in patients with vitamin D deficiency.
Paradoxical reactions characterized by excitability and restlessness may occur in pediatric patients with hyperactive aggressive disorders. Such patients should be monitored for signs of paradoxical stimulation during therapy with barbiturates.
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Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital) drug Interactions
There are 899 drug interactions with Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital)
Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital) alcohol/food Interactions
There are 3 alcohol/food interactions with Tuinal (amobarbital / secobarbital)
Drug Interaction Classification
The classifications below are a general guideline only. It is difficult to determine the relevance of a particular drug interaction to any individual given the large number of variables.
|Major||Highly clinically significant. Avoid combinations; the risk of the interaction outweighs the benefit.|
|Moderate||Moderately clinically significant. Usually avoid combinations; use it only under special circumstances.|
|Minor||Minimally clinically significant. Minimize risk; assess risk and consider an alternative drug, take steps to circumvent the interaction risk and/or institute a monitoring plan.|
Do not stop taking any medications without consulting your healthcare provider.
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