gastric dilatation and volvulus
Definition: in the dog, the process of gastric bloat and subsequent rotation (volvulus) resulting in life-threatening complications, especially if left untreated and when torsion has developed to a degree that gastric blood supply and sometimes spleen circulation are compromised; reported risk factors include correlation with being a medium to giant dog breed, deep thorax conformation, feeding from elevated position, large meals of dry kibble followed by exercise, gastric ligaments that may be genetically weak or become stretched due to distension; currently, etiology is considered multifactorial and not yet fully elucidated; a fairly common condition. Signs include vomiting, weakness, shock, gastric perforation, and cardiac arrhythmias; even with appropriate medical and surgical therapy, may result in death.
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Examples: glitazone, GI cocktail, etc.