sodium iodide (Oral route, Injection route, Intravenous route)

SOE-dee-um EYE-oh-dide

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Iodopen

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Antithyroid Agent

Uses For sodium iodide

Sodium iodide is used to prevent or treat iodine deficiency.

The body needs iodine for normal growth and health. For patients who are unable to get enough iodine in their regular diet or who have a need for more iodine, sodium iodide may be necessary. Iodine is needed so that your thyroid gland can function properly.

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Iodine deficiency in the United States is rare because iodine is added to table salt. Most people get enough salt from the foods they eat, without adding salt to their meals. Iodine deficiency is a problem in other areas of the world.

Lack of iodine may lead to thyroid problems, mental problems, hearing loss, and goiter.

Injectable sodium iodide is administered only by or under the supervision of a health care professional. Some multivitamin/mineral preparations that contain sodium iodide are available without your health care professional's prescription.

Once a product has been approved for marketing for a certain use, experience may show that it is also useful for other medical problems. Although this use is not included in product labeling, injections of sodium iodide are used in certain patients with the following medical condition:

  • Thyrotoxicosis crisis (severe overactive thyroid)

Importance of Diet

For good health, it is important that you eat a balanced and varied diet. Follow carefully any diet program your health care professional may recommend. For your specific dietary vitamin and/or mineral needs, ask your health care professional for a list of appropriate foods. If you think that you are not getting enough vitamins and/or minerals in your diet, you may choose to take a dietary supplement.

Iodine is found in various foods, including seafood, small amounts of iodized salt, and vegetables grown in iodine-rich soils. Iodine-containing mist from the ocean is another important source of iodine, since iodine is absorbed by the skin. Iodized salt provides 76 micrograms (mcg) of iodine per gram of salt.

The daily amount of iodine needed is defined in several different ways.

  • For U.S.—
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) are the amount of vitamins and minerals needed to provide for adequate nutrition in most healthy persons. RDAs for a given nutrient may vary depending on a person's age, sex, and physical condition (e.g., pregnancy).
  • Daily Values (DVs) are used on food and dietary supplement labels to indicate the percent of the recommended daily amount of each nutrient that a serving provides. DV replaces the previous designation of United States Recommended Daily Allowances (USRDAs).
  • For Canada—
  • Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNIs) are used to determine the amounts of vitamins, minerals, and protein needed to provide adequate nutrition and lessen the risk of chronic disease.

Normal daily recommended intakes in mcg for iodine are generally defined as follows:

Persons U.S.
(mcg)
Canada
(mcg)
Infants and children
Birth to 3 years of age
40–70 30–65
4 to 6 years of age 90 85
7 to 10 years of age 120 95–125
Adolescent and adult males 150 125–160
Adolescent and adultfemales 150 110–160
Pregnant females 175 135–185
Breast-feeding females 200 160–210

Before Using sodium iodide

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For sodium iodide, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to sodium iodide or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Problems in children have not been reported with intake of normal daily recommended amounts. However, high doses of sodium iodide may cause skin rash and thyroid problems in infants.

Geriatric

Problems in older adults have not been reported with intake of normal daily recommended amounts.

Breast Feeding

Studies in women suggest that this medication poses minimal risk to the infant when used during breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. Tell your healthcare professional if you are taking any other prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicine.

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of sodium iodide. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Kidney disease—Use of sodium iodide may increase the amount of iodine in the blood and increase the chance of side effects
  • Thyroid disease—This condition may increase the chance of side effects of sodium iodide
  • Tuberculosis—Use of sodium iodide may make this condition worse

Proper Use of sodium iodide

Dosing

The dose of sodium iodide will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of sodium iodide. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For oral dosage form (as part of a multivitamin/mineral supplement):
    • To prevent deficiency, the amount taken by mouth is based on normal daily recommended intakes:
      • For the U.S.
      • Adults and teenagers—150 micrograms (mcg) per day.
      • Pregnant females—175 mcg per day.
      • Breast-feeding females—200 mcg per day.
      • Children 7 to 10 years of age—120 mcg per day.
      • Children 4 to 6 years of age—90 mcg per day.
      • Children birth to 3 years of age—40 to 70 mcg per day.
      • For Canada
      • Adult and teenage males—125 to 160 mcg per day.
      • Adult and teenage females—110 to 160 mcg per day.
      • Pregnant females—135 to 185 mcg per day.
      • Breast-feeding females—160 to 210 mcg per day.
      • Children 7 to 10 years of age—95 to 125 mcg per day.
      • Children 4 to 6 years of age—85 mcg per day.
      • Children birth to 3 years of age—30 to 65 mcg per day.
    • To treat deficiency:
      • Adults, teenagers, and children—Treatment dose is determined by prescriber for each individual based on severity of deficiency.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of sodium iodide, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Do not refrigerate. Keep from freezing.

Store the dietary supplement in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light. Keep from freezing.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Precautions While Using sodium iodide

Many other products contain iodine. For example, iodine is absorbed through the skin from some skin cleansers (e.g., povidone-iodine). It may be especially important that infants and small children not receive large amounts of iodine. Check with your health care professional before using any other products that contain iodine while you are using sodium iodide.

sodium iodide Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor as soon as possible if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common
  • Hives
  • joint pain
  • swelling of arms, face, legs, lips, tongue, and/or throat
  • swelling of lymph glands
With long-term use
  • Burning of mouth or throat
  • headache (severe)
  • increased watering of mouth
  • metallic taste
  • skin sores
  • soreness of teeth and gums
  • stomach irritation

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

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