nicotine (Inhalation route)

Pronunciation

NIK-oh-teen

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Nicotrol

In Canada

  • Nicorette Inhaler

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Aerosol Powder
  • Device
  • Aerosol Liquid

Therapeutic Class: Smoking Cessation Agent

Pharmacologic Class: Cholinergic

Uses For nicotine

Nicotine, in an inhaler is used to help you stop smoking. It is used for up to 6 months as part of a stop-smoking program. This program may include counseling, education, specific behavior change techniques, or support groups.

With the inhaler, nicotine is inhaled through the mouth and is absorbed in the mouth and throat, but not in the lungs. Eight to ten puffs on the inhaler provide about the same amount of nicotine as one puff on an average cigarette. This nicotine takes the place of the nicotine that you would otherwise get from smoking. In this way, the withdrawal effects of not smoking are less severe. Then, as your body adjusts to not smoking, the use of the nicotine inhaler is decreased gradually over several weeks. Finally, use is stopped altogether.

Slideshow: Fact or Fiction? The Top 15 Osteoarthritis Myths

Children, pregnant women, and nonsmokers should not use nicotine inhaler because of harmful effects.

nicotine is available only with your doctor's prescription.

Before Using nicotine

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For nicotine, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to nicotine or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of nicotine inhaler in the pediatric population. Safety and efficacy have not been established.

Geriatric

Although appropriate studies on the relationship of age to the effects of nicotine inhaler have not been performed in the geriatric population, no geriatric-specific problems have been documented to date. However, elderly patients are more likely to have age-related kidney, liver, or heart problems, which may require caution and an adjustment in the dose for patients receiving nicotine inhaler. .

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters D Studies in pregnant women have demonstrated a risk to the fetus. However, the benefits of therapy in a life threatening situation or a serious disease, may outweigh the potential risk.

Breast Feeding

Studies in women breastfeeding have demonstrated harmful infant effects. An alternative to this medication should be prescribed or you should stop breastfeeding while using nicotine.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are taking nicotine, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using nicotine with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Tegafur

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. Discuss with your healthcare professional the use of your medicine with food, alcohol, or tobacco.

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of nicotine. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Asthma or other breathing problems or
  • Heart attack, history of or
  • Heart or blood vessel disease or
  • Heart rhythm problems or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure) or
  • Overactive thyroid or
  • Pheochromocytoma (an adrenal problem) or
  • Stomach ulcer or
  • Type 1 diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes)—Use with caution. Nicotine may make these conditions worse.
  • Drug abuse or
  • Drug dependence—Dependence may be more likely to develop.
  • Kidney disease or
  • Liver disease—Use with caution. Effects may be increased because of slower removal of the medicine from the body.

Proper Use of nicotine

Nicotine inhaler usually comes with patient directions. Read the directions carefully before using nicotine. Ask your doctor if you have any questions.

The nicotine inhaler should be used at or above room temperature (60 °F [16 °C]). Cold temperatures decrease the amount of nicotine you inhale.

You should stop smoking completely before you start using nicotine. If you continue to smoke during treatment, you may have an increased risk of nicotine overdose.

Use nicotine exactly as directed by your doctor. Remember that it is important to participate in a stop-smoking program during treatment. This may make it easier for you to stop smoking.

Wash the mouthpiece of the inhaler with soap and water regularly after each use.

To decrease the risk of becoming dependent on the nicotine inhaler, your doctor may instruct you to stop treatment gradually. This may be done by keeping track of, and steadily reducing, use of the nicotine inhaler or by setting a planned date for stopping use of the inhaler.

Dosing

The dose of nicotine will be different for different patients. Follow your doctor's orders or the directions on the label. The following information includes only the average doses of nicotine. If your dose is different, do not change it unless your doctor tells you to do so.

The amount of medicine that you take depends on the strength of the medicine. Also, the number of doses you take each day, the time allowed between doses, and the length of time you take the medicine depend on the medical problem for which you are using the medicine.

  • For inhalation dosage form (cartridge):
    • To help you stop smoking:
      • Adults and older teenagers—At first, 6 to 16 cartridges per day for up to twelve weeks. Your dose is gradually reduced over a period of up to twelve weeks.
      • Children—Use and dose must be determined by your doctor.

Missed Dose

If you miss a dose of nicotine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Storage

If you miss a dose of nicotine, take it as soon as possible. However, if it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your regular dosing schedule. Do not double doses.

Keep out of the reach of children.

Do not keep outdated medicine or medicine no longer needed.

Ask your healthcare professional how you should dispose of any medicine you do not use.

Precautions While Using nicotine

Do not smoke during treatment with the nicotine inhaler because of the risk of nicotine overdose.

Do not use the nicotine inhaler for longer than 6 months if you have stopped smoking because continuing use of nicotine in any form can be harmful and addictive.

Nicotine should not be used in pregnancy. If there is a possibility you might become pregnant, you may want to use some type of birth control. If you think you may have become pregnant, stop taking nicotine immediately and check with your doctor.

Nicotine products must be kept out of the reach of children and pets. Even used nicotine inhaler cartridges contain enough nicotine to cause serious harm in children. If a child chews on or swallows a cartridge, contact your doctor or poison control center at once.

Do not take other medicines unless they have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

nicotine Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

Less common
  • Fast or irregular heartbeat
  • fever with or without chills
  • headache
  • nausea with or without vomiting
  • runny nose
  • shortness of breath, tightness in the chest, trouble with breathing, or wheezing
  • skin rash, itching, or hives
  • tearing of the eyes

Get emergency help immediately if any of the following symptoms of overdose occur:

Symptoms of overdose
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • cold sweat
  • confusion
  • convulsions (seizures)
  • disturbed hearing and vision
  • drooling
  • extreme exhaustion
  • pale skin
  • slow heartbeat
  • tremors

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

More common
  • Acid or sour stomach
  • belching
  • coughing
  • heartburn
  • indigestion
  • mouth and throat irritation
  • stomach discomfort, upset, or pain
  • stuffy nose
Less common
  • Anxiety
  • back pain
  • change in taste
  • diarrhea
  • dizziness
  • feeling of burning, numbness, tightness, tingling, warmth, or heat
  • feelings of drug dependence
  • flu-like symptoms
  • general pain
  • hiccups
  • mental depression
  • pain in the jaw and neck
  • pain in the muscles
  • passing of gas
  • problems with teeth
  • trouble with sleeping
  • unusual tiredness or weakness

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

The information contained in the Truven Health Micromedex products as delivered by Drugs.com is intended as an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatment. It is not a substitute for a medical exam, nor does it replace the need for services provided by medical professionals. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before taking any prescription or over the counter drugs (including any herbal medicines or supplements) or following any treatment or regimen. Only your doctor, nurse, or pharmacist can provide you with advice on what is safe and effective for you.

The use of the Truven Health products is at your sole risk. These products are provided "AS IS" and "as available" for use, without warranties of any kind, either express or implied. Truven Health and Drugs.com make no representation or warranty as to the accuracy, reliability, timeliness, usefulness or completeness of any of the information contained in the products. Additionally, TRUVEN HEALTH MAKES NO REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE OPINIONS OR OTHER SERVICE OR DATA YOU MAY ACCESS, DOWNLOAD OR USE AS A RESULT OF USE OF THE THOMSON REUTERS HEALTHCARE PRODUCTS. ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR USE ARE HEREBY EXCLUDED. Truven Health does not assume any responsibility or risk for your use of the Truven Health products.

Copyright 2014 Truven Health Analytics, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Hide
(web4)