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linezolid (Intravenous route)

Pronunciation

lin-AYZ-oh-lid

Commonly used brand name(s)

In the U.S.

  • Zyvox

Available Dosage Forms:

  • Solution

Therapeutic Class: Antibiotic

Chemical Class: Oxazolidinone

Uses For linezolid

Linezolid injection is used to treat certain bacterial infections in many different parts of the body, including certain types of skin infections or pneumonia.

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Linezolid belongs to the family of medicines called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria or preventing their growth. However, linezolid will not work for colds, flu, or other virus infections.

linezolid is to be given only by or under the direct supervision of a doctor.

Before Using linezolid

In deciding to use a medicine, the risks of taking the medicine must be weighed against the good it will do. This is a decision you and your doctor will make. For linezolid, the following should be considered:

Allergies

Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to linezolid or any other medicines. Also tell your health care professional if you have any other types of allergies, such as to foods, dyes, preservatives, or animals. For non-prescription products, read the label or package ingredients carefully.

Pediatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated pediatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of linezolid injection in children.

Geriatric

Appropriate studies performed to date have not demonstrated geriatric-specific problems that would limit the usefulness of linezolid injection in the elderly.

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category Explanation
All Trimesters C Animal studies have shown an adverse effect and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women OR no animal studies have been conducted and there are no adequate studies in pregnant women.

Breast Feeding

There are no adequate studies in women for determining infant risk when using this medication during breastfeeding. Weigh the potential benefits against the potential risks before taking this medication while breastfeeding.

Interactions with Medicines

Although certain medicines should not be used together at all, in other cases two different medicines may be used together even if an interaction might occur. In these cases, your doctor may want to change the dose, or other precautions may be necessary. When you are receiving linezolid, it is especially important that your healthcare professional know if you are taking any of the medicines listed below. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using linezolid with any of the following medicines is not recommended. Your doctor may decide not to treat you with this medication or change some of the other medicines you take.

  • Almotriptan
  • Amitriptyline
  • Amoxapine
  • Apraclonidine
  • Atomoxetine
  • Benzphetamine
  • Brimonidine
  • Bupropion
  • Buspirone
  • Carbamazepine
  • Carbidopa
  • Carbinoxamine
  • Citalopram
  • Clomipramine
  • Clovoxamine
  • Cyclobenzaprine
  • Cyproheptadine
  • Desipramine
  • Desvenlafaxine
  • Dexmethylphenidate
  • Diethylpropion
  • Dobutamine
  • Dopamine
  • Doxepin
  • Doxylamine
  • Duloxetine
  • Eletriptan
  • Epinephrine
  • Escitalopram
  • Femoxetine
  • Flesinoxan
  • Fluoxetine
  • Fluvoxamine
  • Frovatriptan
  • Guanadrel
  • Guanethidine
  • Hydroxytryptophan
  • Imipramine
  • Isocarboxazid
  • Levodopa
  • Levomethadyl
  • Levomilnacipran
  • Linezolid
  • Maprotiline
  • Mazindol
  • Meperidine
  • Methadone
  • Methamphetamine
  • Methyldopa
  • Methylene Blue
  • Methylphenidate
  • Milnacipran
  • Mirtazapine
  • Naratriptan
  • Nefazodone
  • Nefopam
  • Norepinephrine
  • Nortriptyline
  • Opipramol
  • Paroxetine
  • Phendimetrazine
  • Phenelzine
  • Phenmetrazine
  • Phentermine
  • Phenylalanine
  • Phenylephrine
  • Phenylpropanolamine
  • Procarbazine
  • Protriptyline
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Rasagiline
  • Reserpine
  • Rizatriptan
  • Selegiline
  • Sertraline
  • Sibutramine
  • Sumatriptan
  • Tapentadol
  • Tetrabenazine
  • Tranylcypromine
  • Trazodone
  • Trimipramine
  • Tryptophan
  • Venlafaxine
  • Vilazodone
  • Vortioxetine
  • Zimeldine
  • Zolmitriptan

Using linezolid with any of the following medicines is usually not recommended, but may be required in some cases. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Albuterol
  • Altretamine
  • Arformoterol
  • Avocado
  • Bambuterol
  • Bitter Orange
  • Bromocriptine
  • Clenbuterol
  • Colterol
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Droperidol
  • Entacapone
  • Ethchlorvynol
  • Fenoterol
  • Fentanyl
  • Formoterol
  • Guarana
  • Hexoprenaline
  • Hydrocodone
  • Hydromorphone
  • Indacaterol
  • Iobenguane I 123
  • Isoetharine
  • Kava
  • Levalbuterol
  • Licorice
  • Lithium
  • Lorcaserin
  • Ma Huang
  • Mate
  • Metaproterenol
  • Metoclopramide
  • Morphine
  • Morphine Sulfate Liposome
  • Oxycodone
  • Pirbuterol
  • Procaterol
  • Reboxetine
  • Reproterol
  • Risperidone
  • Ritodrine
  • Salmeterol
  • St John's Wort
  • Terbutaline
  • Tolcapone
  • Tramadol
  • Tretoquinol
  • Tulobuterol
  • Tyrosine
  • Vilanterol

Using linezolid with any of the following medicines may cause an increased risk of certain side effects, but using both drugs may be the best treatment for you. If both medicines are prescribed together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use one or both of the medicines.

  • Acarbose
  • Acetohexamide
  • Benfluorex
  • Chlorpropamide
  • Clarithromycin
  • Ginseng
  • Gliclazide
  • Glimepiride
  • Glipizide
  • Gliquidone
  • Glyburide
  • Guar Gum
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Aspart, Recombinant
  • Insulin Degludec
  • Insulin Detemir
  • Insulin Glargine, Recombinant
  • Insulin Glulisine
  • Insulin Human Regular
  • Insulin Lispro, Recombinant
  • Metformin
  • Miglitol
  • Repaglinide
  • Rifampin
  • Tolazamide
  • Tolbutamide
  • Troglitazone

Interactions with Food/Tobacco/Alcohol

Certain medicines should not be used at or around the time of eating food or eating certain types of food since interactions may occur. Using alcohol or tobacco with certain medicines may also cause interactions to occur. The following interactions have been selected on the basis of their potential significance and are not necessarily all-inclusive.

Using linezolid with any of the following may cause an increased risk of certain side effects but may be unavoidable in some cases. If used together, your doctor may change the dose or how often you use linezolid, or give you special instructions about the use of food, alcohol, or tobacco.

  • Tyramine Containing Food

Other Medical Problems

The presence of other medical problems may affect the use of linezolid. Make sure you tell your doctor if you have any other medical problems, especially:

  • Carcinoid syndrome or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure), uncontrolled or
  • Pheochromocytoma or
  • Thyroid problems—Should not be used in patients with these conditions unless they are monitored for hypertension and serotonin syndrome.
  • Bone marrow depression or
  • Diabetes or
  • Hypertension (high blood pressure), history of or
  • Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) or
  • Seizures, history of—Use with caution. May make these conditions worse.
  • Infection at the catheter site—Should not be used in patients with this condition.

Proper Use of linezolid

A nurse or other trained health professional will give you or your child linezolid in a hospital. linezolid is given through a needle placed in one of your veins for 30 to 120 minutes.

Your doctor will give you or your child a few doses of linezolid until your condition improves, and then switch you to an oral medicine that works the same way. If you have any concerns about this, talk to your doctor.

Precautions While Using linezolid

It is very important that your doctor check you or your child closely while you are receiving linezolid. This will allow your doctor to see if the medicine is working properly and to check for any unwanted effects.

If your or your child's symptoms do not improve within a few days or if they become worse, check with your doctor.

You should not use linezolid if you or your child have used an MAO inhibitor (MAOI) such as isocarboxazid, phenelzine, Eldepryl®, Marplan®, Nardil®, or Parnate® within the past 14 days. Also, do not use linezolid if you or your child are also using the following medicines: buspirone (Buspar®), dobutamine (Dobutrex®), dopamine (Intropin®), epinephrine (Adrenalin®), meperidine (Demerol®), norepinephrine (Levophed®), cold medicines or decongestants (such as phenylpropanolamine, pseudoephedrine, or Sudafed®), medicine to treat depression (such as amitriptyline, doxepin, fluoxetine, nortriptyline, paroxetine, Celexa®, Effexor®, Elavil®, Lexapro™, Paxil®, or Zoloft®), or medicine to treat migraine headaches (such as sumatriptan, zolmitriptan, Axert®, Imitrex®, or Zomig®).

Linezolid can lower the number of white blood cells in your blood temporarily, increasing the chance of getting an infection. It can also lower the number of platelets, which are necessary for proper blood clotting. If this occurs, there are certain precautions your doctor may ask you to take, especially when your blood count is low, to reduce the risk of infection or bleeding:

  • If you can, avoid people with infections. Check with your doctor immediately if you think you or your child are getting an infection or if you get a fever or chills, cough or hoarseness, lower back or side pain, or painful or difficult urination.
  • Check with your doctor immediately if you notice any unusual bleeding or bruising; black, tarry stools; blood in the urine or stools; or pinpoint red spots on your skin.

linezolid may cause diarrhea, and in some cases it can be severe. It may occur 2 months or more after you stop using linezolid. Do not take any medicine to treat diarrhea without first checking with your doctor. If you have any questions or if mild diarrhea continues or gets worse, check with your doctor.

You may develop low blood sugar while you or your child are using linezolid. You may feel weak, drowsy, confused, anxious, or very hungry. You may have trouble seeing or have a headache that won't go away. Ask your doctor what you should do if this happens. Some things that can lead to low blood sugar are exercising more than normal or waiting too long to eat.

linezolid may cause a serious reaction called lactic acidosis (build-up of acid in the blood). Call your doctor right away if you or your child feel very tired, weak, or nauseated, if you vomits or have trouble breathing, or if you feel lightheaded or fainting.

linezolid may cause serious condition called serotonin syndrome when taken with certain medicines. Check with your doctor first before taking any other medicines. Call your doctor right away if you or your child feel very tired, weak, or nauseated, if you vomit or have trouble breathing, or if you feel lightheaded or fainting.

Check with your doctor right away if blurred vision, difficulty in reading, or any other change in vision occurs during treatment with linezolid. Your eyes may need to be checked by an ophthalmologist (eye doctor).

When taken with certain foods or drinks, linezolid can cause an increase in blood pressure. To avoid this, do not eat large amounts of foods or drink beverages that have a high tyramine content (e.g., aged cheeses, air-dried, fermented, or smoked fish, meat, or poultry, sauerkraut, soy sauce, red wine, or tap beer. If a list of these foods and beverages is not given to you, ask your doctor to provide one.

Do not take other medicines unless thy have been discussed with your doctor. This includes prescription or nonprescription (over-the-counter [OTC]) medicines and herbal or vitamin supplements.

linezolid Side Effects

Along with its needed effects, a medicine may cause some unwanted effects. Although not all of these side effects may occur, if they do occur they may need medical attention.

Check with your doctor or nurse immediately if any of the following side effects occur:

More common
  • Chills
  • confusion
  • dizziness
  • fainting
  • fast heartbeat
  • fever
  • lightheadedness
  • pale skin
  • rapid, shallow breathing
  • rash
  • troubled breathing with exertion
  • unusual bleeding or bruising
  • unusual tiredness or weakness
Less common
  • Black, tarry stools
  • bleeding gums
  • blood in the urine or stools
  • bluish lips or skin
  • body aches or pain
  • chest pain
  • congestion
  • constipation
  • convulsions
  • cough
  • decreased urine
  • difficult or labored breathing
  • dry mouth
  • dryness or soreness of the throat
  • ear congestion
  • headache
  • hoarseness
  • increased thirst
  • irregular heartbeat
  • loss of appetite
  • loss of voice
  • mood changes
  • muscle pain or cramps
  • nasal congestion
  • nausea or vomiting
  • not breathing
  • numbness or tingling in the hands, feet, or lips
  • painful or difficult urination
  • pinpoint red spots on the skin
  • runny nose
  • severe stomach pain
  • shortness of breath
  • sneezing
  • sores, ulcers, or white spots on the lips or in the mouth
  • swollen glands
  • tender, swollen glands in the neck
  • tightness in the chest
  • trouble with swallowing
  • voice changes
  • vomiting of blood or material that looks like coffee grounds
  • wheezing
Incidence not known
  • Abdominal or stomach discomfort
  • blindness
  • blistering, peeling, or loosening of the skin
  • blurred vision
  • burning, numbness, tingling, or painful sensations
  • decreased appetite
  • decreased vision
  • diarrhea
  • eye pain
  • general feeling of discomfort
  • high fever
  • hives
  • itching
  • joint or muscle pain
  • large, hive-like swelling on the face, eyelids, lips, tongue, throat, hands, legs, feet, or sex organs
  • muscle pain or cramping
  • puffiness or swelling of the eyelids or around the eyes, face, lips, or tongue
  • red skin lesions, often with a purple center
  • red, irritated eyes
  • sleepiness
  • swollen glands
  • unexplained bleeding or bruising
  • unsteadiness or awkwardness
  • weakness in the arms, hands, legs, or feet

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:

Less common
  • Abdominal or stomach pain
  • bad, unusual, or unpleasant (after) taste
  • change in taste
  • discoloration of the tongue
  • itching of the vagina or outside genitals
  • loose stools
  • pain during sexual intercourse
  • pain in the arms or legs
  • sleeplessness
  • sore mouth or tongue
  • thick, white curd-like vaginal discharge without odor or with mild odor
  • trouble sleeping
  • unable to sleep
Incidence not known
  • Discoloration of the tooth

Other side effects not listed may also occur in some patients. If you notice any other effects, check with your healthcare professional.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

See also: Side effects (in more detail)

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