Patent Ductus Arteriosus In Children
What is patent ductus arteriosus?
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is an abnormal opening between the aorta and the pulmonary artery of your child's heart. In the womb, the baby's blood goes around his lungs through a normal opening called a ductus arteriosus (DA) because he gets oxygen from his mother's blood. Shortly after birth, the DA closes on its own because blood needs to go to the lungs to get oxygen. When the DA does not close as it should, it is called a PDA.
What happens if your child has a PDA?
A PDA causes some of the blood from the aorta to flow back into the pulmonary artery. This extra blood flow causes the heart to pump harder than normal to send enough blood and oxygen through the body. The increased blood flow could lead to heart failure. It can also increase pressure in your child's lungs.
What causes a PDA?
The cause of PDA is usually not known. PDAs happen more often in premature babies. It also happens more in babies born at high altitudes. Babies born to a mother who had rubella during pregnancy are also more likely to have a PDA.
What are the signs and symptoms of a PDA?
Some children have no symptoms if their PDA is very small. Your child may have any of the following:
- Heart murmur (abnormal sound heard through stethoscope)
- Shortness of breath after crying, eating, or being active
- Trouble breathing at rest
- Blue lips and fingernails after crying, eating, or being active
- Problems eating and gaining weight
- Frequent colds and lung problems
How is a PDA diagnosed?
Your child may need any of the following:
- A chest x-ray is a picture of your child's lungs and heart. Caregivers use it to see if the heart chambers are larger than they should be. A chest x-ray can also show if the aorta and the pulmonary arteries have become larger.
- An EKG test records the electrical activity of your child's heart. It is used to check if there are problems caused by the size of your child's heart.
- An echocardiogram uses sound waves to show pictures of your child's heart on a monitor. This test can show how well your child's heart is pumping. It may also show problems such as fluid around the heart or problems with the heart valves.
How is a PDA treated?
Your child's PDA may not need treatment if it is small and is not causing symptoms. Your child's caregiver may wait to see if the PDA will close on its own. Your child's caregiver may close the PDA even if there are no symptoms to decrease the risk of infection. Your child may need any of the following:
- Medicine may be given to close the PDA if your baby is premature. Your infant or older child may be given heart medicine or diuretics if he has heart failure.
- Cardiac catheterization may be used to close your child's PDA. During this procedure, one or more tiny coils are put into the PDA to close it. This treatment is usually used for older infants and children.
- Surgery may be needed for premature infants if the medicine used to close a PDA does not work or cannot be given. Surgery may also be needed for infants and older children.
When should I contact my child's caregiver?
- Your child has problems eating and gaining weight.
- Your child has a fever.
- Your child has chills, a cough, or feels weak and achy.
- You have questions or concerns about your child's condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care or call 911?
- Your child has shortness of breath after crying, eating, or being active.
- Your child's lips and fingernails turn blue after being active.
Care AgreementYou have the right to help plan your child's care. Learn about your child's health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your child's caregivers to decide what care you want for your child. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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