Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Adults
What is diabetes mellitus type 2?
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Adults Care Guide
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease that affects how your body uses glucose (sugar). Insulin is a hormone that helps your body take sugar out of your blood and use it for energy.
What causes diabetes mellitus type 2?
Normally, when the blood sugar level increases, the pancreas makes more insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops because either your body cannot make enough insulin, or you have insulin resistance. Insulin resistance means your pancreas keeps making insulin but your body cannot use it correctly. After many years, your pancreas may stop making insulin.
What increases my risk for diabetes mellitus type 2?
You have a higher risk for type 2 diabetes if you are overweight and at least one of the following is true:
- Your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diabetes.
- You have high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
- You do not get any exercise.
- You have a history of heart disease.
- You have a family member with diabetes.
- You had gestational diabetes or you gave birth to a baby that weighed more than 9 pounds.
- You have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- You are African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2?
- More thirst than usual
- Frequent urination
- More hunger than usual
- Weight loss without trying
- Blurred vision
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 diagnosed?
You may need tests to check for type 2 diabetes mellitus starting at age 45, even if you do not have any risk factors or symptoms. Caregivers will test your blood sugar level twice to be sure that you have diabetes.
- Blood glucose test: A sample of your blood is tested for the amount of sugar it contains.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested. You are then given a glucose drink. Your blood sugar level is checked after 1 hour and again 2 hours after you drink the glucose. Caregivers look at how much your blood sugar level increases from the first check.
- A1c test: This blood test shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over the past 2 to 3 months.
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 treated?
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled. The goal is to keep your blood sugar at a normal level. You must eat the right foods and exercise. You may also need medicine if you cannot control your blood sugar level with food and exercise.
How do I check my blood sugar level?
You will be taught how to check a small drop of blood in a glucose monitor. You may need to check your blood sugar level at least 3 times each day. Ask your caregiver when and how often to check during the day. Ask what your blood sugar levels should be before and after you eat. Write down your results and show the results to your caregiver. He may use the results to make changes to your medicine, food, and exercise schedules.
Which foods should I eat?
A dietitian will help you make a meal plan to keep your blood sugar level steady. Never skip meals. Your blood sugar level may drop too low if you have taken medicine and do not eat.
- Keep track of carbohydrates: Your blood sugar level can get too high if you eat too many carbohydrates in one meal or snack. Your dietitian will help you plan meals and snacks that have the right amount of carbohydrates.
- Eat low-fat foods: Choose foods that are low in fat. Some examples are skinless chicken and low-fat milk.
- Eat less salt: Limit foods that are high in sodium (salt). Some examples are soy sauce, potato chips, and soup. Do not add salt to food you cook. Limit your use of table salt.
- Eat high-fiber foods: Foods that are a good source of fiber include vegetables, whole grain bread, and beans.
- Limit alcohol: Alcohol affects your blood sugar level and can make it harder to manage your diabetes. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
How much exercise should I get?
Exercise can help keep your blood sugar level steady, decrease your risk of heart disease, and help you lose weight. Exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week. Include muscle strengthening activities 2 days each week, such as push-ups, sit-ups, and lifting weights. Work with your caregiver to plan the best exercise program for you.
- Check your feet each day for injuries or open sores. Ask your caregiver for activities you can do if you have an open sore. You will need to exercise carefully so that you do not make the sore worse.
- Check your blood sugar level before and after exercise to learn how your body responds to exercise. Caregivers may tell you to change the amount of insulin you take or food you eat.
- Have a carbohydrate snack available during and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL, have a carbohydrate snack before you exercise. Examples are 4 to 6 crackers, ½ banana, 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk, or 4 ounces (½ cup) of juice.
- Drink liquids before, during, and after exercise. Ask your dietitian or caregiver which liquids you should drink when you exercise.
What can I do to manage my diabetes?
- Keep all follow-up appointments: Your caregiver will want to monitor your blood sugar level. He may also want you to have additional tests to check your blood pressure, cholesterol, and A1c.
- Ask about your weight: Ask caregivers if you need to lose weight, and how much to lose. Ask them to help you with a weight loss program.
- Quit smoking: If you smoke, it is never too late to quit. Smoking can worsen the problems that can occur with diabetes. Ask your caregiver for information about how to stop smoking if you are having trouble quitting.
- Carry medical alert identification: Wear medical alert jewelry or carry a card that says you have diabetes. Ask your caregiver where to get these items.
- Ask about vaccines: Diabetes puts you at risk of serious illness if you get the flu or pneumonia. Ask your caregiver if you should get a flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis B vaccine, and when to get the vaccine.
What are the risks of diabetes mellitus type 2?
Certain medicines used to treat diabetes may cause pancreas or thyroid problems. Uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries. High blood sugar levels may damage other body tissue and organs over time. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. Diabetes can be life-threatening if it is not controlled.
Where can I find more information?
- American Diabetes Association
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria , VA 22311
Phone: 1- 800 - 342-2383
Web Address: http://www.diabetes.org
When should I contact my caregiver?
Contact your caregiver if:
- You are vomiting or have an upset stomach.
- You feel weak or more tired than usual.
- You feel dizzy, have headaches, or are easily irritated.
- You have red, dry skin.
- You have numbness in your arms or legs.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care?
Seek care immediately or call 911 if:
- You have severe abdominal pain. The pain may spread to your back. You may also be vomiting.
- You are having trouble staying awake or focusing.
- You are shaking or sweating.
- You have blurred or double vision.
- Your breath has a fruity, sweet smell.
- Your breathing is deep and labored, or rapid and shallow.
- Your heartbeat is fast and weak.
You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.