Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 In Adults
What is diabetes mellitus type 2?
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a disease that affects how your body uses glucose (sugar). Insulin helps move sugar out of the blood so it can be used for energy. Normally, when the blood sugar level increases, the pancreas makes more insulin. Type 2 diabetes develops because either the body cannot make enough insulin, or it cannot use the insulin correctly. After many years, your pancreas may stop making insulin.
What increases my risk for diabetes mellitus type 2?
You have a higher risk for type 2 diabetes if you are overweight and at least one of the following is true:
- Your blood sugar level is higher than normal, but not yet high enough to be diabetes.
- You have high blood pressure or high cholesterol.
- You do not get any exercise.
- You have a history of heart disease.
- You have a family member with diabetes.
- You had gestational diabetes, or you gave birth to a baby who weighed more than 9 pounds.
- You have polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
- You are African American, Latino, Native American, Asian American, or Pacific Islander.
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 2?
You may have high blood sugar levels for a long time before symptoms appear:
- More hunger or thirst than usual
- Frequent urination
- Weight loss without trying
- Blurred vision
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 diagnosed?
You may need tests to check for type 2 diabetes mellitus starting at age 45, even if you do not have any risk factors or symptoms. Healthcare providers will test your blood sugar level twice to be sure that you have diabetes.
- Blood glucose test: A sample of your blood is tested for the amount of sugar it contains.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested. You are then given a glucose drink. Your blood sugar level is checked after 1 hour and again after 2 hours. Healthcare providers look at how much your blood sugar level increases from the first check.
- A1c test: This blood test shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over the past 2 to 3 months.
How is diabetes mellitus type 2 treated?
Type 2 diabetes can be controlled. The goal is to keep your blood sugar at a normal level. You must eat the right foods, and exercise regularly. You may also need medicine if you cannot control your blood sugar level with nutrition and exercise.
How do I check my blood sugar level?
You will be taught how to check a small drop of blood in a glucose monitor. You will need to check your blood sugar level at least 3 times each day if you are on insulin. Ask your healthcare provider when and how often to check during the day. If you check your blood sugar level before a meal , it should be between 70 and 130 mg/dL. If you check your blood sugar level 1 to 2 hours after a meal , it should be less than 180 mg/dL. Ask your healthcare provider if these are good goals for you. Write down your results, and show them to your healthcare provider. He may use the results to make changes to your medicine, food, and exercise schedules.
What do I need to know about nutrition?
A dietitian will help you make a meal plan to keep your blood sugar level steady. Do not skip meals. Your blood sugar level may drop too low if you have taken medicine and do not eat.
- Keep track of carbohydrates (sugar and starchy foods): Your blood sugar level can get too high if you eat too many carbohydrates. Your dietitian will help you plan meals and snacks that have the right amount of carbohydrates.
- Eat low-fat foods: Choose foods that are low in fat. Some examples are skinless chicken and low-fat milk.
- Eat less sodium (salt): Some examples of high-sodium foods to limit are soy sauce, potato chips, and soup. Do not add salt to food you cook. Limit your use of table salt.
- Eat high-fiber foods: Foods that are a good source of fiber include vegetables, whole grain bread, and beans.
- Limit alcohol: Alcohol affects your blood sugar level and can make it harder to manage your diabetes. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
How much exercise should I get?
Exercise can help keep your blood sugar level steady, decrease your risk of heart disease, and help you lose weight. Exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week. Include muscle strengthening activities 2 days each week. Work with your healthcare provider to create an exercise plan.
- Check your feet each day for injuries or open sores. Ask your healthcare provider for activities you can do if you have an open sore. You will need to exercise carefully so that you do not make the sore worse.
- Check your blood sugar level before and after exercise. Healthcare providers may tell you to change the amount of insulin you take or food you eat.
- Have a carbohydrate snack available during and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL, have a carbohydrate snack before you exercise. Examples are 4 to 6 crackers, ½ banana, 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk, or 4 ounces (½ cup) of juice.
- Drink liquids that do not contain sugar before, during, and after exercise. Ask your dietitian or healthcare provider which liquids you should drink when you exercise.
What else can I do to manage my diabetes?
- Keep all follow-up appointments: Your healthcare provider will want to monitor your blood sugar level. He may also want you to have additional tests to check your blood pressure and cholesterol. Your healthcare provider may want you to have your A1c checked every 3 months. Most people should keep their A1c at or below 7%.
- Ask about your weight: Ask healthcare providers if you need to lose weight, and how much to lose. Ask them to help you with a weight loss program. Even a 10 to 15 pound weight loss can help you manage your blood sugar level.
- Quit smoking: If you smoke, it is never too late to quit. Smoking can worsen the problems that may occur with diabetes. Ask your healthcare provider for information about how to stop smoking if you are having trouble quitting.
- Carry medical alert identification: Wear medical alert jewelry or carry a card that says you have diabetes. Ask your healthcare provider where to get these items.
- Ask about vaccines: Diabetes puts you at risk of serious illness if you get the flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis. Ask your healthcare provider if you should get a flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis B vaccine, and when to get the vaccine.
What are the risks of diabetes mellitus type 2?
Uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries. High blood sugar levels may damage other body tissue and organs over time. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. Diabetes is life-threatening if it is not controlled.
When should I contact my healthcare provider?
- You are vomiting or have diarrhea.
- You have an upset stomach and cannot eat the foods on your meal plan.
- You feel weak or more tired than usual.
- You feel dizzy, have headaches, or are easily irritated.
- Your skin is red, warm, dry, or swollen.
- You have a wound that does not heal.
- You have numbness in your arms or legs.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care or call 911?
- You have severe abdominal pain, or the pain spreads to your back. You may also be vomiting.
- You are having trouble staying awake or focusing.
- You are shaking or sweating.
- You have blurred or double vision.
- Your breath has a fruity, sweet smell.
- Your breathing is deep and labored, or rapid and shallow.
- Your heartbeat is fast and weak.
Care AgreementYou have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment. The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.
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