Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Adults
What is diabetes mellitus type 1?
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 In Adults Care Guide
Diabetes mellitus type 1 is a disease that affects how your body makes insulin and uses glucose (sugar). Insulin is a hormone that helps your body take sugar out of your blood and use it for energy.
What causes diabetes mellitus type 1?
Normally, when your blood sugar level increases, your pancreas makes more insulin. Type 1 diabetes develops because your immune system destroys pancreas cells that make insulin. Your pancreas cannot make enough insulin, so your blood sugar level continues to rise.
What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes mellitus type 1?
- More thirst than usual
- Frequent urination
- Hunger most of the time
- Weight loss without trying
- Blurred vision
How is diabetes mellitus type 1 diagnosed?
- Blood glucose test: A sample of your blood is tested for the amount of sugar it contains.
- Fasting plasma glucose test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested.
- Oral glucose tolerance test: After you have fasted for 8 hours, your blood sugar level is tested. You are then given a glucose drink. Your blood sugar level is checked at 1 hour after you drink the glucose and again at 2 hours after. Caregivers look at how much your blood sugar level increases from the first check.
- A1c test: This test shows the average amount of sugar in your blood over the past 2 to 3 months.
- Antibody test: This blood test may be done to test for signs that your immune system is attacking your pancreas.
How is diabetes mellitus type 1 treated?
Type 1 diabetes cannot be cured, but it can be controlled. The goal is to keep your blood sugar at a normal level. You may need 1 or more doses of insulin each day. Insulin can be injected or given through an insulin pump. Ask your caregiver which method is best for you. You must take insulin correctly. You will be taught how to give the insulin doses.
How do I check my blood sugar level?
You will be taught how to check a small drop of blood with a glucose monitor. You may need to check your blood sugar level at least 3 times each day. Ask your caregiver when and how often to check during the day. Ask what your blood sugar levels should be before and after you eat. You may need to check for ketones in your urine or blood if your blood sugar is high. Write down your results and show them to your caregiver. He may use the results to make changes to your medicine, food, or exercise schedules.
Which foods should I eat?
A dietitian will help you make a meal plan to keep your blood sugar level under control. Never skip meals. Your blood sugar level may drop too low if you have taken medicine and do not eat.
- Keep track of carbohydrates: Your blood sugar level can get too high if you eat too many carbohydrates in one meal or snack. Your dietitian will help you plan meals and snacks that have the right amount of carbohydrates.
- Eat low-fat foods: Choose foods that are low in fat. Some examples are skinless chicken and low-fat milk.
- Eat less salt: Limit foods that are high in sodium (salt). Some examples are soy sauce, potato chips, and soup. Do not add salt to food you cook. Limit your use of table salt.
- Eat high-fiber foods: Foods that are a good source of fiber include vegetables, whole grain bread, and beans.
- Limit alcohol: Alcohol affects your blood sugar level and can make it harder to manage your diabetes. Women should limit alcohol to 1 drink a day. Men should limit alcohol to 2 drinks a day. A drink of alcohol is 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1½ ounces of liquor.
How much exercise should I get?
Exercise can help keep your blood sugar level steady, decrease your risk of heart disease, and help you lose weight. Exercise for at least 30 minutes, 5 days a week. Work with your caregiver to plan the best exercise program for you.
- Check your feet for open sores before you exercise. Ask your caregiver for activities you can do if you have an open sore. You will need to exercise carefully so that you do not make the sore worse.
- Check your blood sugar level before and after exercise to learn how your body responds to exercise. Caregivers may tell you to change the amount of insulin you take or food you eat. Do not exercise if your blood sugar level is high and you have ketones in your urine or blood.
- Have a carbohydrate snack available during and after exercise. If your blood sugar level is less than 100 mg/dL, have a carbohydrate snack before you exercise. Examples are 4 to 6 crackers, ½ banana, 8 ounces (1 cup) of milk, or 4 ounces (½ cup) of juice.
- Drink liquids before, during, and after exercise. Ask your dietitian or caregiver which liquids you should drink when you exercise.
What else can I do to manage my diabetes?
- Keep all follow-up appointments: Your caregiver may want you to have additional tests to check your blood pressure, cholesterol, and A1c.
- Ask about your weight: Ask caregivers if you need to lose weight, and how much to lose. Ask them to help you with a weight loss program.
- Quit smoking: If you smoke, it is never too late to quit. Smoking can worsen the problems that can occur with diabetes. Ask your caregiver for information about how to stop smoking if you are having trouble quitting.
- Carry medical alert identification: Wear medical alert jewelry or carry a card that says you have diabetes. Ask your caregiver where to get these items.
- Ask about vaccines: Diabetes puts you at risk of serious illness if you get the flu or pneumonia. Ask your caregiver if you should get a flu, pneumonia, or hepatitis B vaccine, and when to get the vaccine.
What are the risks of diabetes mellitus type 1?
Certain medicines used to treat diabetes mellitus type 1 may cause pancreas or thyroid problems. Uncontrolled diabetes can damage your nerves, veins, and arteries. High blood sugar levels can damage your eyes and kidneys. Damage to arteries increases your risk of heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. Diabetes can be life-threatening if it is not controlled.
Where can I find more information?
- American Diabetes Association
1701 North Beauregard Street
Alexandria , VA 22311
Phone: 1- 800 - 342-2383
Web Address: http://www.diabetes.org
When should I contact my caregiver?
Contact your caregiver if:
- You feel weak or more tired than usual.
- You feel dizzy or have headaches.
- You are vomiting or have an upset stomach.
- You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
When should I seek immediate care?
Seek care immediately or call 911 if:
- You are having trouble staying awake or focusing.
- You are shaking or sweating.
- You have blurred or double vision.
- Your breath has a fruity, sweet smell or your breathing is shallow.
- Your heartbeat is fast and weak.
You have the right to help plan your care. Learn about your health condition and how it may be treated. Discuss treatment options with your caregivers to decide what care you want to receive. You always have the right to refuse treatment.
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The above information is an educational aid only. It is not intended as medical advice for individual conditions or treatments. Talk to your doctor, nurse or pharmacist before following any medical regimen to see if it is safe and effective for you.