Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccines use while Breastfeeding
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccines Levels and Effects while Breastfeeding
Summary of Use during Lactation
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and several health professional organizations state that vaccines given to a nursing mother do not affect the safety of breastfeeding for mothers or infants and that breastfeeding is not a contraindication to DTP vaccine. Vaccination of pregnant women after 20 weeks of gestation have higher antipertussis IgA levels in their breastmilk. Women who have not received acellular pertussis vaccine with tetanus and reduced diphtheria toxoids (Tdap) previously should be vaccinated with Tdap as soon as feasible in the postpartum period, even if they are breastfeeding, as long as they have not been vaccinated with tetanus and reduced diphtheria toxoids (Td) vaccine within the past 2 years. After vaccination, anti-pertussis antibodies appear in breastmilk within 1 to 2 weeks. Breastfeeding also appears to reduce infant side effects associated with routine childhood immunization. Breastfed infants should be vaccinated according to the routine recommended schedules.
Maternal Levels. Thirty-nine women who were within 24 hours postpartum received 0.5 mL of Tdap vaccine (Adacel, Sanofi Pasteur) and 11 received no vaccine. Colostrum or breast milk and blood samples were collected at baseline and 7, 10, 14, and 28 days after vaccination. Breastmilk IgA levels against pertussis toxoid peaked at day 10 postpartum, then slowly decreased. Breast milk antibody levels against the other antipertussis vaccine components, filamentous hemagglutinin and fimbriae types 2 and 3, reached a plateau during days 10 to 14 and then slowly decreased. Breast milk antibody levels against another antipertussis vaccine component, pertactin, peaked on day 14 and then decreased by day 28.
The milk of 25 pregnant women given Tdap vaccine (Boostrix, GlaxoSmithKline) after 20 weeks of pregnancy was compared to colostrum from 12 unvaccinated women. Milk samples were collected prior to discharge after delivery (colostrum) and at 2, 4 and 8 weeks postpartum. Vaccinated women had significantly higher antipertussis antibody levels in their breastmilk than unvaccinated women. The primary class of imunoglobulins was IgA, which were highest in colostrum, but still detectable at 8 weeks.
Total and anti-pertussis toxin secretory IgA (sIgA) levels were measured in breastmilk from women who had been vaccinated either during pregnancy (n = 19), at or shortly after delivery (n = 34), less than 5 years before delivery (n = 9), or more than 5 years before delivery (n = 12). Tdap vaccine (Boostrix, GlaxoSmithKline) was used in the first 3 groups. Breastmilk samples were obtained between 44 and 91 days postpartum. No difference in total sIgA was found between the groups, but women who were vaccinated during pregnancy or shortly after birth had higher anti-pertussis toxin levels of sIgA than those vaccinated more than 5 years before. Higher anti-pertussis toxin sIgA levels were found among women practicing mixed feeding than among exclusively breastfeeding mothers.
Infant Levels. Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
Effects in Breastfed Infants
Limited data indicate that breastfeeding can enhance the response of the infant to certain vaccine antigens, including tetanus toxoid. Breastfed infants are also less likely to have fever and may be less likely to experience anorexia and reduced energy intake after routine childhood immunization than those who are not breastfed.
One study of previously vaccinated infants found that at 21 to 40 months of age breastfed infants had higher IgG levels against diphtheria, higher secretory IgA levels in saliva against diphtheria and tetanus and higher fecal IgM against tetanus than formula-fed infants.
Effects on Lactation and Breastmilk
Relevant published information was not found as of the revision date.
1. General recommendations on immunization --- recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011;60 (RR-2):1-64. PMID: 21293327
2. Gruslin A, Steben M, Halperin S et al. Immunization in pregnancy: No. 220, December 2008. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2009;105:187-91. PMID: 19367691
3. Anon. Human milk. In: Pickering LK, Baker CJ, Kimberlin DW, Long SS, eds. Red Book: 2009 Report of the Committee on Infectious Diseases. 28th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2009.
4. Murphy TV, Slade BA, Broder KA et al. Prevention of pertussis, tetanus and diphtheria among pregnant and postpartum women and their infants. Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Recomm Rep. 2008;57 (RR-4):1-51. PMID: 18509304
5. Halperin BA, Morris A, Mackinnon-Cameron D et al. Kinetics of the antibody response to tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine in women of childbearing age and postpartum women. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;53:885-92. PMID: 21946190
6. Abu Raya B, Srugo I, Kessel A et al. The induction of breast milk pertussis specific antibodies following gestational tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccination. Vaccine. 2014;32:5632-7. PMID: 25148774
7. De Schutter S, Maertens K, Baerts L et al. Quantification of vaccine-induced anti-pertussis toxin secretory IgA antibodies in breast milk: Comparison of different vaccination strategies in women. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015;34:e149-52. PMID: 25719454
8. Pabst HF. Immunomodulation by breast-feeding. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1997;16:991-5. PMID: 9380478
9. Perin MC, Schlindwein CF, de Moraes-Pinto MI et al. Immune response to tetanus booster in infants aged 15 months born prematurely with very low birth weight. Vaccine. 2012;30:6521-6. PMID: 22959983
10. Pisacane A, Continisio P, Palma O et al. Breastfeeding and risk for fever after immunization. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e1448-52. PMID: 20478932
11. Lopez-Alarcon M, Garza C, Habicht JP et al. Breastfeeding attenuates reductions in energy intake induced by a mild immunologic stimulus represented by DPTH immunization: possible roles of interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and leptin. J Nutr. 2002;132:1293-8. PMID: 12042449
12. Hahn-Zoric M, Fulconis F, Minoli I et al. Antibody responses to parenteral and oral vaccines are impaired by conventional and low protein formulas as compared to breast-feeding. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1990;1979:1137-42. PMID: 2085099
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccines Identification
LactMed Record Number
Last Revision Date
Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. You should consult your healthcare provider for breastfeeding advice related to your particular situation. The U.S. government does not warrant or assume any liability or responsibility for the accuracy or completeness of the information on this Site.