this is a longshot but i need a list of all painkillers for animals i know that tramadol is one but what are some others, (example tylenol,aspirin,oxycodone,demerol ext)
Painkillers for animals?
- 28 Nov 2010 by oxyaaron
Added 28 Nov 2010:
what about if its big tumors on her stomach?
28 Nov 2010
Hope you are well.
In my research I found the following information from :
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories (NSAIDs)
The nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications are the mainstay of pain relief in dogs. Unfortunately, cats do not tolerate this group of medications very well, with a few exceptions. Many clients view NSAID medications as safe, based on the fact that many of them are over-the-counter medications for human use. Despite this general feeling of safety it should be noted that aspirin alone is suspected of causing approximately 16,000 deaths per year in the United States due primarily to gastric or intestinal ulcers. This group of medications is safer in many respects than other classes of pain relief medication but they are not entirely risk free. NSAIDs are frequently used for both acute and chronic pain.
Older NSAIDs such as aspirin, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and naproxen are more likely to cause ulcers than newer medications, referred to as "Cox2 inhibitors". On the other hand, when the Cox-2 inhibitors cause problems they can be more severe. So there is kind of a tradeoff between fewer side effects and more severe side effects. There is some controversy over whether the newer drugs actually provide more pain relief than the older ones. I definitely fall in the camp who believes that the Cox-2 inhibitors are more effective pain relievers for chronic pain.
It is very important to stop administering any NSAID and to call your vet if your pet stops eating or even has a significant decrease in appetite while the medication is being used. It is also quite important to let your vet know if you are using an over the counter pain relief medication at the time of yearly visits and especially when your vet is prescribing a medication for another purpose. Medications do interact and your vet must know that a medication is being given in order to take interactions into account.
There are a number of NSAIDS available for use in dogs and cats (and some common ones that shouldn't be used):
Aspirin: The recommended dosage for aspirin in dogs is 10mg/lb of body weight every 12 hours. The recommended dosage of aspirin for cats is controversial but a good starting point is 10mg/lb of body weight every 48 to 72 hours. Aspirin has a very long half life in cats and it is very easy to overdose a cat if aspirin is given on a daily basis. It is best to use aspirin under the supervision of your vet when using it in cats.
Ibuprofen (Motrin tm, Advil tm, others): it is generally agreed that the risk of gastrointestinal ulceration is high enough with this medication that its use is not advisable in either dogs or cats. In at least one study 100% of dogs given ibuprofen for a week developed gastrointestinal ulceration detectable by endoscopy. Despite this I have had a number of clients tell me they were using ibuprofen without visible ill effect, so if you happen to be doing this don't panic, but do switch to an alternative medication.
Ketoprofen ( Orudis KT tm): The recommended dosage of ketoprofen for dogs is 1mg/kg every 24 hours. Some texts advise using this for no more than 5 days. If a longer dosing period is necessary using 0.5mg/kg once a day may be safer and still effective. Ketoprofen may be used with great caution in cats at the same dosage but it is hard to do this practically, since the tablets are 10mg in size, which is the dosage for a 22 lb. cat or dog.
Naproxen (Aleve tm): The published dosage for dogs is 1.1 to 2.2mg/kg given once a day or every other day. Naproxen is not recommended for use in cats. Despite the existence of a published dosage we have seen ulcers in three dogs associated with the use of naproxen by pet owners. While none of them seemed very clear about the dose they were using this has caused us enough concern that we feel that naproxen should not be used in dogs or cats.
Etodolac ( Lodine Rx, Etogesic Rx): is approved for use in dogs. It provides good pain relief for long term conditions but has a tendency to cause a decrease in tear production which can be a really severe side effect. For this reason, it is very important to watch for any signs of eye pain or discomfort when using etodolac long term and to discontinue use if these problems develop. The recommended dosage in dogs is 10 to 15mg/kg once a day. Etodolac should not be used in cats.
Tolfenamic acid: is approved for use as a pain reliever in Europe and Canada but not in the U.S. It is dosed on an unusual schedule requiring three days of dosing followed by four days without medication, which is very important to follow. It is used in both dogs and cats. The recommended dosage is 4mg/kg or less once daily for 3 days, repeating the dosage after a 4 day rest if necessary to use chronically.
Piroxicam (Feldene Rx): is a potent NSAID that has some unusual benefits for certain conditions. It can be used solely for its pain relieving capability but since it is more likely than most NSAIDs to cause gastrointestinal ulceration its use is usually reserved for conditions in which it's other benefits are more meaningful. The recommended dosage is 0.3mg/kg every 48 hours (can be used every 24 hours for the first two doses). In cats it is sometimes used at 72 hour intervals rather than 48 hour intervals. Piroxicam has the ability to dramatically shrink some forms of cancer, especially transitional cell carcinomas of the urinary bladder. It also seems to help with severe bladder inflammation associated with chronic cystitis. There is some evidence that piroxicam is also effective for shrinking nasal tumors and reducing discomfort associated with this type of tumor. It may be best to administer misoprostol, a gastrointestinal protectant, when using piroxicam.
Meloxicam (Metacam Rx): The recommended dosage in dogs is 0.2mg/kg on the first day, then 0.1mg/kg every 24 hours. There is a measured dosing syringe for the liquid form of this medication. Meloxicam is generally regarded to have more of a Cox-2 spectrum in its action. It is available as a honey flavored liquid or in tablets. Meloxicam is only approved for use in dogs in the United States but it has been studied for use in cats and seems to be reasonably safe. The recommended dosage for cats is 0.1mg/kg once a day for 5 days, then 1 drop from the standard dispensing bottle for chronic use. Our experience has been that meloxicam works well at the higher initial dosage but doesn't seem to work nearly as well for chronic pain if the lower long term dosing schedule is used. This may or may not be a typical experience.
Deracoxib (Deramaxx Rx): The recommended dosage for dogs for acute pain is 3 to 4mg/kg/day. For chronic pain the dosage is 1 to 2mg/kg/day. This is a Cox-2 inhibitor. Based on our clinical experience this is the most potent of the NSAID pain relievers, on the average. There are individual variations among patients, though. There have been some reports of sudden severe gastrointestinal bleeding associated with the use of deracoxib, which is similar to the experience with Cox-2 inhibitors in people. This medication is not recommended for use in cats.
Carprofen ( Rimadyl Rx): The recommended dosage for dogs is 1mg/lb every 12 hours or 2mg/lb every 24 hours. In chronic pain situations it is often possible to use 1mg/lb per day successfully, although this does vary from dog to dog. This is a predominantly Cox-2 inhibitor. There are confirmed cases of liver failure associated with the use of carprofen (considered to be a rare complication), so it is best to check blood work for liver damage prior to use and to recheck lab work after 2 to 4 weeks of use. Carprofen is not approved for use in cats but it is sometimes used on a one time basis for pain relief associated with surgeries such as spay or neuter procedures.
Tepoxalin (Zubrin Rx): The recommended dosage of tepoxalin in dogs is 10mg/kg once a day. This medication suppresses both Cox-1 and Cox-2 systems. Tepoxalin is not approved for use in cats and I have not seen a published dosage to use in this species. Zubrin is the most recent of the primarily Cox-2 NSAIDs to gain approval and we have not used it as the others have been working well. I suspect that this medication works just as well as the others, though.
Narcotic pain relief medications have been used for a very long time. There are a number of these medications available with a wide variation in their pain relieving capability and in their potential for addiction. Fortunately, in veterinary medicine, addiction is much less of a problem than in human medicine for the simple reason that dogs and cats can't buy the medications themselves. It is still important to recognize that it can occur and to withdraw medications appropriately when there is a reasonable expectation that some degree of addiction may be present. Narcotic medications work well with other pain relief medications, especially the NSAIDs and combinations of these medications work better than either group alone. There are categories of narcotics and some of them work in ways that make it a bad idea to use one right after another or to use two antagonistic narcotics at the same time. This is mostly a worry for your veterinarian when prescribing narcotics but it is important not to use these medications without the advice and supervision of a veterinarian.
Narcotic medications are almost all controlled substances, meaning that they are regulated by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as well as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Veterinarians have to purchase and maintain special licenses to use these drugs and must account for every instance in which they are used. When it becomes common knowledge that a veterinary practice uses and stores narcotics there is a higher risk of robberies for the clinic. Due to these issues there are veterinarians who will not stock and use narcotic medications. In general it is possible to practice without narcotics but in many instances it severely restricts the ability to properly treat a patient's pain. While I can really understand why veterinarians would want to avoid the use of this category of medications I also think they are important enough in the treatment of painful conditions that it is worth finding a veterinarian who is willing to put up with the paperwork and minor risks of handling these medications if your pet has a painful condition that won't respond to drugs that are not controlled substances.
Morphine is the narcotic most people are most familiar with. It is a very good pain relief medication and it is definitely worth considering when a pet has severe pain. Morphine works consistently and reliably in dogs. It sometimes causes pretty severe reactions in cats in which extreme excitability occurs. This can be a major problem if the cat's condition can be worsened by uncontrolled activity, such as a cat recovering from orthopedic surgery. One drawback of morphine is that it must be administered frequently. Morphine frequently causes vomiting and can produce sedation. At higher doses constipation can be a problem with long term use. There are sustained release morphine preparations that work well in dogs but which are much more expensive and are closely monitored by pharmacies, making it uncomfortable for pet owners who have to purchase these medications, at times. If your pet needs pain relief and it is only possible to give medications twice a day these are worth considering, despite the hassle.
Outside of the United States one of the most commonly prescribed narcotics is pethidine, which is generally known in the U.S. as meperidine (Demerol Rx). In the U.S. the use of meperidine is less frequent, which may be due to relative availability as meperidine is a controlled substance in the U.S. There is some question about the duration of action of meperidine in dogs and cats as most studies suggest that it provides approximately one to two hours of pain relief. It is supposed to work well in combination with NSAIDS and this effect may be due to good short term pain relief. In many cases if severe pain can be dampened, even for a short time, it will make pain easier to control over the long term.
Codeine and hydrocodone are used frequently in veterinary medicine. These are not nearly as potent for pain relief as morphine but they make a very good combination medication for use with NSAIDS. Vicodin (Rx) is a mixture of hydrocodone and acetaminophen, which can be used safely in dogs. Codeine/aspirin combinations are also available. These combinations are not acceptable for use in cats. We usually base our dosing on the hydrocodone or codeine portion for combination medications. Hydrocodone can be used in cats if it is the sole ingredient.
It is pretty common in veterinary medicine to dispense butorphanol (Torbutrol Rx) for pain relief, especially in cats. While this is definitely better than no pain relief at all there are limits to the effectiveness of butophanol for chronic pain, as its effects only last for one to two hours in most dogs and several hours in cats. In addition, increasing the dosage of this medication can sometimes lessen its pain relieving effects rather than increase them.
Buprenorphine is a narcotic that is not approved for use in dogs or cats even though it is used fairly often. It provides a longer duration of pain relief than butorphanol. It doesn't come in an oral form but the injectable form is given orally in cats as it is tasteless and works well as an oral solution. This medication is rapidly gaining favor in the United States as the preferred narcotic for use in cats.
Fentanyl is usually used as a transdermal patch (Duragesic Rx) in dogs and cats. It provides long term pain relief by constant absorption through the skin from the patch. It is surprising, but most pets will leave these patches alone. Despite this it is important to prevent the pet from ingesting the patch as this can provide an oral dosage high enough to cause coma or death. It is important to recognize that there is a delayed onset of effect when using the patches. In dogs it takes about 12 hours to achieve good pain relieving dosages and in cats it takes a minimum of five hours. The effective life of the patch is about 3 days in dogs and up to 5 days in cats. The pain relief from these patches is considered to be moderate, especially in dogs. For this reason it is often necessary to use them as a constant provider of pain control but to supplement them as necessary with a compatible narcotic or an NSAID.
Other Pain Relief Medications
Tramadol (Ultram Rx) is a a pain relief medication that has similar effects to narcotics but is not actually a narcotic compound. It is useful in both dogs and cats for long term pain relief. This is a medication that can be used by veterinarians who are adverse to using controlled substances but who wish to provide some benefits associated with narcotics. The recommended dosage in dogs is 1 to 2mg/kg every 12 hours but doses up to 5mg/kg and dosing intervals as short as every 6 hours have been used when necessary in dogs without major reported adverse effects. In cats the recommended dosage is usually 1/4th of a 50mg tablet per cat every 12 hours.
Acetaminophen (Tylenol tm): cats can not process acetaminophen at all and it is unsafe in cats at any dose. Dogs tolerate acetaminophen without problems at dosages up to about 25mg/lb every 8 hours but there is a lot of controversy over how well this medication works in dogs. Most veterinary pharmacologists seem to suspect that it doesn't work at all. It is often given in combination with hydrocodone as the combination medication is less expensive than hydrocodone alone.
Gabapentin (Neurotin Rx): is a seizure control medication that seems to suppress chronic pain. It is expensive and we have not had a situation in which we had to use it so I have no personal experience with it. The recommended dosage is 1 to 4mg/kg every 12 hours in dogs and every 24 hours in cats. In humans gabapentin is reported to provide additional pain relief in extreme pain situations in which narcotics such as morphine aren't potent enough alone.
It might sound strange to include antidepressants in the pain relief category of medications but there is reasonable evidence that some of these medications do help to relieve chronic pain. It is plausible that some of the antidepressant effect may in fact be pain relief, at least in some patients.
The antidepressant that is most commonly used as an aid in controlling long term pain is amitriptyline (Elavil Rx). This medication has been used for some time in pets as an aid in controlling behavioral problems, for its antihistamine effect in skin disease and now for chronic pain relief. It is used in combination with pain relief medications in almost all cases and it seems to reduce the amount of pain relief necessary in many patients. In dogs amitriptyline is usually dosed at 1 to 2mg/kg every 12 hours. In cats the dose is usually 2.5 to 12.5mg per cat given once a day, usually at night.
Imipramine (Tofranil Rx) is another antidepressant that seems to help with chronic pain. In dogs it is generally dosed as 0.5 to 1mg/kg every 8 hours. In cats the dose is 2.5 to 5 mg/kg every 12 hours. We have no clinical experience with imipramine for pain but we have used it in dogs for urinary incontinence and one of those owners noticed that her aging Lab was more mobile while on this medication.
Acupuncture seems to work well for some patients for relief of both acute and chronic pain. In studies somewhere between 50% and 90% of patients who have acupuncture still need additional pain relief but less potent medications can sometimes be used or lower doses of stronger medications. There is some concern that a tolerance to acupuncture may occur in chronic pain where it is necessary to repeat treatments regularly and that owners might miss this if they are not looking for it. Acupuncture is not available everywhere but it is an option to consider when pain is not responding well to medications or when medications are undesirable for some reason, such as an adverse effect on disease conditions already present.
Most veterinarians and veterinary clients don't view corticosteroids as pain relief medications, for the primary reason that they provide very little actual pain relief. On the other hand, they are the most potent anti-inflammatory medications available and often it is inflammation that is causing the pain in the first place. Corticosteroids have a great number of side effects, including weakening cartilage in joints. However, there is a time in arthritis when there really isn't much reason to worry about cartilage in the joints anymore because it is already severely damaged. This is also often the time when a pet owner is considering euthanasia because a pet isn't getting around well enough to enjoy life at all. Using corticosteroids at this time makes sense. After all, if the alternative is euthanasia, what side effect will change that scenario?
Pain Relief Without Medications
For pain caused by arthritis and back pain there is good evidence that weight reduction to ideal or even slightly below ideal weight for the dog's size will lessen chronic pain quite a bit. In some studies weight control has worked as well as the NSAIDs for control of chronic pain from these types of conditions. It can be hard to get your pet to lose weight but the benefits are definitely worthwhile.
Don't overlook the value of simple touch and of caring compassionately for pets experiencing pain. It really does help to massage chronically sore limbs. Ice packs can be very helpful for some types of surgical pain and for acute injuries both in limiting pain and speeding the healing process. Warm compresses can help with chronic pain, especially arthritis pain. It can take some coaxing to get a pet to accept these types of care but it is often worth the effort. A soft bed seems to help some dogs with hip dysplasia or elbow dysplasia quite a bit, although it is important that it still be thin enough that they can get up easily from it. Just showing a pet sympathy can help a great deal with acute pain and probably works pretty well for chronic pain, as well.
I hope this information is helpful.-
I am not an expert or come even close to being one with this topic.- But I want to help you.-
All the best and take care my brother,
28 Nov 2010
Hi oxyaaron, I think Maso has pretty much covered the bases as to what a pet can or cannot take. I hope that you are considering using a vet to dispense your pets RX's. All animals may react differently to medications, especially cats who may be supersensitive to even minute amount of aspirirn. Medications are administered to animals pretty much the same way as humans. Take into account what they are suffering from, start with the smallest dose in the begining to establish tolerance, monitor your pet closely for the first 24 hours. Whenever I worked with animals I dispensed (under the vet's supervision) primarily phenobarbatol,ketamine and several different Nsaids. I have seen valium dispensed as well as benadryl. Be safe. I hope your pet feels better. Make sure you give double doses of TLC!. Fall Queen
28 Nov 2010
Good morning oxyclean! Maso pretty much covered all the bases on this one. My vet always told me the only major difference between animal and human pain meds is the strength and quality controls in the labs that produce them. I was reamed out when I first joined about being insensitive about someones cat. Fall Queen was there too. Although she defended me. Hubby had accidentally dropped a 10mg valium and I called the vet cuz Lucy Loo snatched it up before it even hit the floor. He asked what her weight was and once again told me not to worry. Animal meds are about the same. She'll be very sleepy. Well, first she got a little rowdy, acting all big and bad (she's a jack russell) then she passed out. I kept checking her breathing but as the vet said she'll be fine. And she was.
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